Unit 9: Personality & Intelligence Lesson 4: Measuring Intelligence Lesson Essential Questions What is intelligence Lesson Vocab (make vocab card for each term): Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Lewis Terman David Wechsler Alfred Binet Standardization Flynn Effect Reliability
Validity (predictive validity & content validity) Normal curve for IQ Gifted Cognitively disabled Cultural bias in testing eugenics DAILY COMMENTARY: 1. List and describe: Gardners multiple intelligences Sternbergs breakdown of intelligence categories
2. In intelligence testing, what is the purpose of standardization? 3. Whats the difference between tests like the ACT or SAT and the AP Psychology exam? BY TOMORROW: 1. Develop draft of your Personality Analysis (DUE THURSDAY) 2. Do your reading for THURSDAYS socratic seminar & complete graphic organizers
3. Complete the: Get Smart module on PsychSim5 Unit 9: Personality & Intelligence Lesson Measuring Intelligence LESSON GOAL: After this lesson, you should be able to: assess the validity and value of intelligence testing and standardized tests in schoolsREQUIRED READINGS THIS UNIT: REQUIRED READING: Myers 431-442
Griggs 202-211 Students are assigned TWO of the articles below: Cowley, Geoffrey. Testing the Science of Intelligence Gibbs, Nancy. The EQ Factor Paul, Annie Murphy: How to Be Brilliant. Cohen, Patricia. Charting Creativity: Signposts of a Hazy Territory. Strauch, Barbara. How to Train the Aging Brain. DEADLINES & HOMEWORK:
www.mrggpsychology.weebly.com Performance Task Deadlines: Lesson 1: Conduct a personality analysis of a well-known celebrity or politician of your choice. Your analysis must be conducted from TWO different approaches to personality study. Choose two options between: Psychoanalysis, Humanistic Psych, social-cognitive, or trait theory) Unit 9 Vocab Quizzes:
Lessons 1 & 2: March 24th Lessons 3 & 4 (Intelligence): March 26th SPRING BREAK WORK: Complete assigned readings & review packet for Emotion, Stress, & Health Make a 3 Column K-W-L Charts 1. In the first column, write what you know (or think you know) about intelligence 2. In the second column, write what you WANT to know (any questions you have) about
intelligence and how we measure it. 3. At the end of class, write what you learned in the third column. Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? Recent Studies indicate some correlation (about +.40) between brain size and intelligence. As brain size decreases with age, scores on verbal intelligence tests also decrease. Gray matter concentration in people with high intelligence.
5 Brain Function Studies of brain functions show that people who score high on intelligence tests perceive stimuli faster, retrieve information from memory quicker, and show faster brain response times. People with higher intelligence respond correctly and quickly to the above question. 6
Alfred Binet Alfred Binet and his colleague Thodore Simon practiced a more modern form of intelligence testing by developing questions that would predict childrens future progress in the Paris school system. 7
Lewis Terman In the US, Lewis Terman adapted Binets test for American school children and named the test the Stanford-Binet Test. The following is the formula of Intelligence Quotient (IQ), introduced by William Stern: 8
Aptitude and Achievement Tests Aptitude tests are intended to predict your ability to learn a new skill and achievement tests are intended to reflect what you have already learned. 9 Quick Write Give an example of an aptitude test you have taken and an example of an achievement test you have taken. What type of intelligence is required for each test?
David Wechsler Wechsler developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), an intelligence test for preschoolers. 11 WAIS WAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 other aspects
related to intelligence that are designed to assess clinical and educational problems. 12 Quick Write How did Wechsler modify and improve the IQ tests designed by Stanford & Binet? Normal Curve Standardized tests establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern called the normal curve.
Individuals with IQs above 130 are gifted and may be considered genius Individuals with IQs below 70 are considered cognitively disabled 14 Flynn Effect In the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of 27 points. This phenomenon is known as the Flynn effect. Flynn suggests this is because we are getting used to taking the tests, not because we are smarter than our grandparents
15 Sample IQ test Do this at home, not in class: http://www.free-iqtest.net/score.asp I (Mr. G-G) got a 136 the last time I did thisam I a genius? Probably not. Ive taken the same 2-3 times. According to the _________ effect, I likely got better at taking the test. (136 is still pretty darned good though, even with the Flynn effect this is likely to increase my self efficacy, which folks
like Rogers say is important to my mental health) Principles of Test Construction For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill the following three criteria: 1. Standardization 2. Reliability 3. Validity 17
Standardization Standardizing a test involves administering the test to a representative sample of future test takers in order to establish a basis for meaningful comparison. 18 Reliability A test is reliable when it yields consistent results. To establish reliability researchers establish different procedures:
1. 2. 3. Split-half Reliability: Dividing the test into two equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are. Reliability using different tests: Using different forms of the test to measure consistency between them. Test-Retest Reliability: Using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency. 19
Validity Reliability of a test does not ensure validity. Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposed to measure or predict. 1. Content Validity: Refers to the extent a test measures a particular behavior or trait. 2. Predictive Validity: Refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait. 20 Stability or Change?
Intelligence scores become stable after about seven years of age. In numerous studies, stability of intelligence scores have been determined (Angoff, 1988; Deary et al., 2004). 21 Problems with Intelligence Tests They dont measure all types of intelligence They dont measure effort, commitment, or emotional stability
The Dynamics of Intelligence Does intelligence remain stable over a lifetime or does it change? Are individuals on the two extremes of the intelligence scale really that different? 23 Extremes of Intelligence A valid intelligence test divides two groups of people into two extremes: the mentally retarded (IQ 70) and individuals with high intelligence (IQ 135). These two groups are significantly different.
24 Quick Write: EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE Between the reliability & validity of a test. Identify the criteria required for a test to be considered reliable, and for a test to be considered valid. What is necessary in order for a test to be standardized? Why is standardization necessary? BY TOMORROW:
1. Personality Analysis (DUE THURSDAY) 2. Do your reading for THURSDAYS socratic seminar & complete graphic organizers 3. Complete the: Get Smart module on PsychSim5 Unit 9: Personality & Intelligence Lesson 4: Measuring Intelligence Lesson Essential Questions What is intelligence Lesson Vocab (make vocab card for each term): Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Lewis Terman
David Wechsler Alfred Binet Standardization Flynn Effect Reliability Validity (predictive validity & content validity) Normal curve for IQ Gifted Cognitively disabled Cultural bias in testing eugenics
DAILY COMMENTARY: 1. Explain the criteria for reliability and validity of a test. 2. What percentage of people are within one standard deviation of having an average IQ score of 100? PLEASE SUBMIT NOW: 1. CELEBRITY Personality Analysis
2. Take out completed graphic organizers on intelligence articles Open shared google doc for socratic seminar and enter your discussion questions Unit 9: Personality & Intelligence Lesson 4: Measuring Intelligence LESSON GOAL: After this lesson, you should be able to: assess the validity and value of intelligence testing and standardized tests in schoolsREQUIRED READINGS THIS UNIT:
REQUIRED READING: Myers 431-442 Griggs 202-211 Students are assigned TWO of the articles below: Cowley, Geoffrey. Testing the Science of Intelligence Gibbs, Nancy. The EQ Factor Paul, Annie Murphy: How to Be Brilliant. Cohen, Patricia. Charting Creativity: Signposts of a Hazy Territory.
Strauch, Barbara. How to Train the Aging Brain. DEADLINES & HOMEWORK: www.mrggpsychology.weebly.com Performance Task Deadlines: Lesson 1: Conduct a personality analysis of a well-known celebrity or politician of your choice. Your analysis must be conducted from TWO different approaches to personality study. Choose two options between: Psychoanalysis, Humanistic Psych, social-cognitive, or trait
theory) Unit 9 Vocab Quizzes: Lessons 1 & 2: March 24th Lessons 3 & 4 (Intelligence): March 26th SPRING BREAK WORK: Complete assigned readings & review packet for Emotion, Stress, & Health Early Intervention Effects Early neglect from caregivers leads children to develop a
lack of personal control over the environment, and it impoverishes their intelligence. Romanian orphans with minimal human interaction are delayed in their development. 31 Schooling Effects Schooling is an experience that pays dividends, which is reflected in intelligence scores. Increased schooling correlates with higher intelligence scores.
To increase readiness for schoolwork, projects like Head Start facilitate leaning. 32 Racial (Group) Differences If we look at racial differences, white Americans score higher in average intelligence than black Americans (Avery and others, 1994). European New Zealanders score higher than native New Zealanders (Braden, 1994). White-Americans
Black-Americans Average IQ = 100 Average IQ = 85 Hispanic Americans 33 Environmental Effects Differences in intelligence among these groups are
largely environmental, as if one environment is more fertile in developing these abilities than another. 34 Reasons Why Environment Affects Intelligence 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6. Races are remarkably alike genetically. Race is a social category. Asian students outperform North American students on math achievement and aptitude tests. Todays better prepared populations would outperform populations of the 1930s on intelligence tests. White and black infants tend to score equally well on tests predicting future intelligence. Different ethnic groups have experienced periods of remarkable achievement in different eras.
35 Race, Intelligence Tests, & Education Race Science some intelligence tests were originally designed to prove that blacks had a lower natural intelligence level than whites Some social scientists argue out that for minorities to succeed in a white-dominated world requires acting white, and point out that refusing to do so is a form or resistance against oppression Donald Glover clip:
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/03/18/donald-g lover-obama-is-a_n_504645.html Race, Intelligence Tests, & Education Affirmative Action What is it? Bakke v. California; & Grutter v. Bollinger Fisher v. Texas (current case) RESPOND: Jencks & Phillips (1998) The average black child now attends school in a district that spends as much per pupil as the
average white childs districtstudies of mixed-race children and black children adopted by white parents suggest, however, that racial differences in test performance are largely if not entirely environmental in origin. RESPOND: Jencks & Phillips (1998) successful theories will take more account of the factors that psychologists have traditionally emphasizedA good explanation of why white fiveyear-olds have bigger vocabularies than black fiveyear olds is likely to focus on how much the parents talk to their children, how they deal with childrens questions, and how they react when their children
either learn or fail to learn something, not on how much money the parents have. Comment: imagine the genome as a giant control board, with thousands of switches and knobs that turn genes off and on or tune them up and down. And think of talent not as a thing, but as something we do. How to Be Brilliant by Annie Murphy Paul (2010) Write comments:
two weaknesses in [this] argument become evident. The first is the matter of where the extreme drive and discipline that greatnesss requires are supposed to come from. Shenk tells us about Beethoven wrting 60 to 70 drafts of a single phrase of music, and Ted Williams hitting practive pitches until his hands bled. Shenk would be the last to argue that such fierece dedication is inborn or innate but if it isnt, are the rest of us equally capable of mustering it? How to Be Brilliant by Annie Murphy Paul (2010) Respond in writing:
Eugenics gave rise to laws in at least 30 states authorizing forced sterilization of the ostensibly feeble minded and hereditarily criminalWhile blacks and American Indians were disproporitonately victimized, intelligence testing added many immigrants and others of inferior stock, preodminantly Appalachian whites, to the rolls of the sterilized. In the long run, the project of measuring intelligence probably did more than eugenics to stigmatize and hold back the nonwhite. Linda Gordon. Whos White. New York Times March 25, 2010
Respond in Writing While I.Q. tests, though controversial, are still considered a reliable test of at least a certain kind of intelligence, there is no equiavalent when it comes to creativity --- no Creativity Quotient, or CQ. though intelligence and skill are generally associated with the fast and efficient firing of neurons, subjects who testesd high in creativity had thinner white matter connecting axons that have the effect of slowing nerve traffic in the brain. This slowdown in the left frontal cortex, a region where emotional and cognitive abilities are integrated, Dr. Jung suggested,
might allow for the linkage of more disparate ideas, more novelty and creativity. Patricia Cohen. Charting Creativity: Signposts for a Hazy Territory. New York Times: May 11, 2010. Discussion Group Norms Respect and LISTEN TO each others viewpoints Summarize the point made by the previous speaker before you make your point Balanced speaking time: give everyone a chance to participate Use readings to support your opinions when you speak.
Cite the article you refer to, and bring in direct quotes for discussion if you have one ready Respond to: Discussion prompts Your own discussion questions Discussion Prompt: Based on your reading and our experience with standardized tests like the SAT, are these a good measure of intelligence? Why or why not.
Discussion Prompt Research suggests that the achievement gap may be caused by various social and psychological issues including: Parenting styles Child development & language acquisition Is it the job of schools and education experts to address these concerns? If so, how can this be done while still respecting the rights of parents make choices in how they raise their children.
Many parents have never studied child development. Is this a problem and how might it be addressed? Discussion Prompt: Suppose you are a Dean of Admission for a University. What types of intelligences would you most value in your students? Only general intelligence? Or linguistic? logical/mathematical? Musical? Spatial? Kinesthetic? Intrapersonal? Interpersonal? naturalist? Would you consider emotional intelligence as a
factor in admissions? Discussion Prompt A strict reading of the 14th amendment suggests that the use of race in college admissions is unconstitutional. Do we live in a color-blind society? Should University admissions be race blind. Is affirmative action a fair or unfair policy? Why? How do you think the Court should rule in Fisher v. Texas?
BEFORE YOU LEAVE, place on the center table: All article packets, in separate stacks based on the artice Finishing your KWL Charts 1. In the first column, write what you know (or think you know) about intelligence 2. In the second column, write questions you have about intelligence and how we measure it. 3. At the end of class, write what you learned in the third column.
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence No other topic in psychology is so passionately followed as the one that asks the question, Is intelligence due to genetics or environment? 51 Genetic Influences Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together support the idea that there is a significant genetic contribution to intelligence.
52 Adoption Studies Adopted children show a marginal correlation in verbal ability to their adopted parents. 53 Take out your intelligence test How long did it take you to finish? +5 if you finished in under 20 minutes +3 if you finished in under 30 minutes
Correct Answers 1. Friday 2. P Y completes the spelling of SILVER ANNIVERSARY 3. 25 4. Anniversary 5. MENSA 6. B 7. B
8. B 9. TOM 10. HOUSE 11. JANE 12. 9 pm 13. b both grow below ground 14. e only one that is not an artistic work made by humans Correct answers
16. PARACHUTE 17. 5 18. c 19. LAND 20. C the number of lines goes down opposite the stick, up on the side with the stick, and the stick alternates from the lower left to the top
right SCORING 1 point for each correct answer 25 excellent Mensa candidates 24-25 will almost surely pass the Mensa supervised test 14-19 good
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