Unit 2 The Atomic Model of Matter - Lundquist Labs
Unit 2 The Atomic Model of Matter Lundquist -- 2016 Properties of Matter Unit 2.1 Describing Matter Extensive
Dependent on amount Mass Volume Weight color Intensive
Amount does not matter Boiling point Melting point Density () phase
Unit 2.1 Note Quiz Questions 1. Describing Matter Substance has a definite composition (always the same)
Can be identified by unique properties Describing Matter A group of elements bound together chemically is a compound
Subscript denotes the numbers of atoms of that element are present in a representative unit of that compound. Table salt, NaCl; sugar, C12H22O11 Classification of Matter Pure Substance one element or one
compound identified by its unique chemical or physical properties. Molecules compounds but do not have to be different elements, and can be as
few as 1 atom Monoatomic elements Helium Common molecules Carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O) Diatomic elements Bromine (Br2),
Iodine (I2), Nitrogen (N2), Chlorine(Cl2), Hydrogen (H2),Oxygen (O2), Fluorine (F2), Classification of Matter Mixtures combination of 2 or more pure substances
Heterogeneous Areas of higher concentration soil, oil & water Homogenous
Equal distribution of particles air, Kool-Aid Note Quiz Questions 2. Do p. 11 Describing Matter Physical
Properties Can be observed without changing the substance Chemical Properties Requires the substance react with another compound or energy
source Caused the atoms to rearrange Note Quiz Questions 3. 4. 5.
6. Do p. 12 Describing Matter Physical Change Change in location or arrangement of molecules
Start = Finish INCLUDES changes of state Chemical Change Rearrangement of ATOMS Start Finish Describing Matter
Chemical changes result in the substance being consumed to produce a new substance Signs of a chemical change Formation of a gas Formation of a solid (precipitate) Change in temperature Change in color Production of light
Do p. 13 The Periodic Table Unit 2.2 Elements and Compounds Elements Compound
Simplest form of matter ~114 known (92 naturally occurring) 2+ elements chemically combined Can be broken down
chemically Properties differ from elements that make them History Democritus (460- 370 BCE)
Made of small invisible parts Cant be destroyed Coined the term atomos History
John Dalton (1766- 1844) English chemist, physicist, & meteorologist
Researched colorblindness (daltonism) theorized that atoms were a defining substance of matter History Daltons Theory 1. Elements are atoms 2. Atoms of an element are the
same* 3. Atoms cannot be destroyed 4. Combine in whole number ratios 5. Chemical reactions are just recombination History Joseph James Thomson (1856-1940)
Physicist Nobel prize winner (so did 7 of his students & his son)
Working with electricity in a vacuum found that a ray was produced History Joseph James Thomson (1856-1940) Determined that atoms have a negative
component EXTREMEMLY large charge/mass ratio Plum Pudding Model (1904)
Plums = ePudding = (+) energy History Ernest Rutherford (1837 - 1937) British physicist
Proved that alpha radiation is a helium atom Discovered half-life (won Nobel prize) History Rutherford & The Gold Foil experiment (1911)
Plum pudding model At the atomic level there is no solid To test his ideas about a particles
Rolled Au into a VERY thin sheet Shot a at it History History
lly a a n i Orig etary plan el mod History Niels Bohr (1885 - 1962)
Danish physicist Studied with Rutherford Electrons are held in energy levels (distances from the nucleus) Based of work by Planck,
Einstein, Pauli, & Heisenburg History Energy levels: show number of e- Nucleus: write symbol, #p+ and #n0 History Robert Millikan
American Physicist Won Nobel Prize Found the charge/mass of an e- History Quantum Theory
Duality of matter Quantum Theory History Wolfgang Pauli Developed Paulis exclusion principle
Won the Nobel Prize Two electrons can not be in the same place at the same time History The Periodic Table
Mendeleev Moseley Arranged periodic table by nuclear charge History Unit 2.2 Note Quiz Questions 1.
Unit 2.2 Note Quiz Questions 2. 3. Unit 2.2 Note Quiz Questions 4. Review
Symb ol Mas Char s ge Location Proton p+
1 +1 Nucleus Electro n e- ~0
-1 Outside the nucleus Neutro n n0 ~1 none
Nucleus The Periodic Table Rows = periods Arranged in increasing
nuclear charge (atomic number) Columns = Families / groups The Periodic Table Element Name Atomic Number Elemental symbol Average Atomic Mass
The Periodic Table Element Name English names Some come from antiquity The Periodic Table Atomic Number (Z)
The number of p+ Also called the nuclear charge Since each p+ is a +1 More (+) charge means more e- needed to neutralized it
IF NEUTRAL, Z =# e- The Periodic Table Elemental Symbol Based off English or Latin
Calcium = Ca Tungstun = W (wolfram) Helium = He Lead = Pb (plumbum) The Periodic Table Average Atomic Mass Atoms of an element can
differ in mass This is the average mass of all known isotopes (###) = no stable nuclei are known Unit 2.2 Note Quiz
Questions 5. 6. 7. Isotopes Atoms of the same element with different masses
Same number of p+ Same number of eDIFFERENT number of n0 Isotope names are written as the element-mass
Protium = hydrogen-1 Deuterium = hydrogen-2 Isotopes Notation Way of denoting different isotopes Z is understood and not
always written Since EVERY atom of element X would have Z protons Practice How many protons (p+) neutrons (n0) and electrons (e-) are in each isotope?
2+ Isotopes Same element different masses
In any pure sample of an element there can be several different isotopes Unit 2.2 Note Quiz Questions 8. 9. 10.
Do p. 14 Average Atomic Mass Unit 2.3 Mass Spectrometer Lots of Arguing <1850 the mass of atoms was based on Hydrogen
1850-1956 used Oxygen O = 16 amu
H = 1 atomic mass unit Making H of O Small problem (1919) isotopes (O with a mass of 17 & 18) Made 2 different systems (O and O) 1961 based off
Was already a base in physics for masses More stable isotope 1 amu = mass of 1 nucleus 13 6 Carbon-13
12 6 Carbon with a mass of 13 6 protons 7 neutrons
Carbon-12 Carbon with a mass of 12 6 protons
6 neutrons Average Atomic Mass Number of protons (+) charge in the nucleus Number of e- if neutral Average atomic mass
Isotopes (heavier/lighter Weighted average atoms) Average Atomic Mass . . =(1 %1)+(2 %2)+(3 %3)..
f so e s Ma top i so nt as e rc nce al e P da im un dec b
a a Do p. 15 Isotopes Generally the most stable isotope exists in the highest abundance Contributes the most to the
mass Generality ADVANCED PROBLEM Hint: Remember percent abundance must equal 100 together A sample of argon contains 2 isotopes and ,
given the average atomic mass of argon what is the percent abundance of each isotope? 1. Unit 2.3 Note Quiz Questions 2. 3.
Unit 2.3 Note Quiz Questions 4. 5. Unit 2.3 Note Quiz Questions P3.2 Do the TOP HALF of p. 17
stop at Decay reaction Next class & the class after Lab next class BEANIUM!!! Quiz the class after Write the isotope notation for an element
Determine number of p+, n0, & e- Assign to a family Determine average atomic mass Unit 2.4 Nuclear Decay
History Marie Curie (1867-1934) Developed :
the theory of radioactivity Dying of radioactivity The treatment of radioactivity First woman Nobel prize winner (won twice!) Discovered Po & Rd
Radioactivity Stability Less energy where everything wants to be ratio
More p+/n0 = unstable (more energy) For larger elements stable nuclei occur at intervals of 8ish There are LOTS of types of
nuclear decay Ways for atoms to lower their energy and become more stable Nuclear Decay Alpha (a) Decay Too big nuclei (after Pb) all
do this Atomic bulimia Releases an alpha particle
Helium atom or Stopped by tissue paper Nuclear Decay Beta (b) Decay Alters the ratio Turns a neutron into a proton
Emits an electron like particle Has almost no mass and a (-) charge or Stopped by cardboard n
to N o ur yo or L SO st te Nuclear Decay Positron Emission -or- Electron capture
0r Releases antimatter! Neutron becomes a proton Nuclear Chemistry Gamma Radiation The release of energy that accompanies almost ALL
radiation Has no mass or charge is pure energy ONLY blocked by Pb 1.
Unit 2.4 Note Quiz Questions 2. Nuclear Decay Fission Destruction of the nucleus into smaller nuclei Fusion
Combination of two nuclei Unit 2.4 Note Quiz Questions 3. Predicting products of nuclear reactions Mass must be conserved
What type of decay occurred? Charge must be conserved What is the product of the radiation shown above? Unit 2.4 Note Quiz Questions 4.
5. 6. Finish p. 17 Do p. 16, & 19 Half Life The amount of time it takes half a sample to decay into another element
Half Life Going forward in time Back in time Divide by 2 for however many half lives pass
Multiply by 2 for however many half lives pass Look for amount left after x time Look for original sample? end with x grams
Half life An isotope of cesium has a half life of 30 year. If 1.0 g degenerated to xeon over a period of 90 years, how many grams of Cs will remain in the sample? How much of the sample will be Xeon ? Half Life Actinium-226 has a half life of 29 hours. What was the mass of the original sample if after 58
hours 50.0 mg remains? Finding Half Life Determine the amount that would have had to have happened What is the half life of an isotope if after 100. years 12.5% of the original sample remains Unit 2.4 Note Quiz Questions 7.
8. Unit 2.4 Note Quiz Questions 9. 10. Do p. 21 & 20 THE END Test NEXT PERIOD!
25 MC you will need to 21 to get a 100 1 free response worth 10 points, you will need to earn 7 to get a 100 Multiple Choice homework due NEXT PERIOD!
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