Unit 2: The United States & Canada

Unit 2: The United States & Canada

Warm Up Name some reasons as to why the U.S is a resource rich nation. What are some types of water travel that was important to the growth of the United States? Unit 2: The United States & Canada

A profile of the U.S.

U.S. 4th largest in land area (3,717,792 sq.mi) U.S. 3rd largest in population (300m) U.S. world highest total GNP & GDP Literacy Rate 99% Rate of Natural Increase 0.6% IMR 6.7/1000 Life Expectancy 78 % of population under 15 (20%) over 65 (12%)

% urban 79% GNIPPP $41,950 I. A Resource Rich Nation Stop the War! Individual Freedoms

Communication Natural Resources Transportation A. U.S. wealthy b/c of its abundant natural resources 1. Farmland fertile soil in South & Midwest

encouraged dev. of west a. Homestead Act 1862 gave land to settlers (160 acres) b. Dept. of Ag. created to promote farming in these regions - established land-grant colleges to conduct research, develop drought resistant crops

2. Lumber construction, paper, etc a. after timber cleared in east for farmland, industry moved to west. Most of timber industry west of the Rockies. b. Reforestation programs, conservation, regulations,

National parks. - only 5% of original forests remain c. Minerals - US = 1/5 worlds coal supply - Oil & Natural Gas - Other non-fuel minerals: copper, gold, uranium, etc. B. U.S. is a wealthy nation b/c of

its advanced transportation network 1. Water Travel a. Steamboat allowed for speedy transp. of goods & people - regardless of wind or current b. canals artificial waterways 2. Land Travel a. RRs

1) transcont RR 1869 linked E to W 2) RRs led to economic growth of U.S. b. Autos 1) freedom of mvmt 2) interstate hwy system 1950s C. U.S. is a wealthy nation b/c of it advanced communication network ** Allowed biz & people to communicate quickly across long distances

1. Telegraph 1837 2. Telephone 1876 3. Internet in many homes by mid 1990s D. U.S. is a wealthy nation b/c of Respect for Individual Freedoms 1. Free Enterprise (capitalism) a. acting in own interest, also serve in interest of others

b. individuals can own, operate and profit from their own biz 2. Opportunity a. regardless of background, people are free to pursue success social mobility b. rugged individualism: hard-work, selfreliance leads to prosperity II. A Nation of Cities A. Intro progression of development

Ag Industry & Manu. Serv. Ind. B. Metropolitan Areas and Location 1. U.S. is 79% Urban, 21% rural today 2. 250 Metropolitan areas: major

cities + burbs 3. cities sometime include nearby small communities 4. Citys change w/ changes in technology C. Transportation Affects Patterns of Settlement 1. Canals led to growth of trade a) Midwest farmers benefited from access to MS

river New Orleans port b) Eastern Cities needed more access to the west to increase trade c) Erie Canal connected Great Lakes to Hudson R. to NYC led to development of MidW states - new cities established (Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, and Buffalo) 2. RRs a. Transcontinental RR -1869: linked E to W

b. RRs = most important form of trans. By Civil War c. led to growth of cities along rail lines (Chicago) 3. Autos a. freedom to move about the country b. led to growth of other industries 1) rubber tires

2) gas stations 3) hotel/motels along highways c. interstate highway system 1950s d. of autos & mass transit led to dev of suburbs e. neighborhoods grew on edge of cities D. The Impact of Migration on the Nation 1. People & Biz moving to S & W

favorable temps 2. People move from cities to suburbs 3. New Orleans regained important b/c of cult. attractions 4. NYC & Chicago remained important b/c of variety of jobs and activities E. Cities & Towns 1. Interconnections example buying a can of peas at the grocery

a. farmer grows peas (primary econ. act.) b. crop processed at factory (sec. econ. act.) c. cans shipped to warehouse (tertiary econ. act.) d. Managers research and determine where to ship, how much to store, etc.. (quaternary econ. act.) 2. Function & Size a. Cities & their Hinterlands (areas influenced by their city)

- hinterlands of lg. cities may include entire US or even the world NYC = worlds financial center Chicago = U.S.s agricultural center L.A. = worlds movie center (what about Bollywood??) - smaller cities have smaller hinterlands 4. Gentrification a. Process of buying run-down homes in

older areas of a community and restoring them b. Wealthy moving back to inner cities c. Some argue that gentrification increasing property values and property taxes thus pushing out other low income residents d. Gentrification in Houston Regions of the U.S.

I. The Northeast (ME, NH, VT, CT, MA, RI, PA,NY,NJ) A. Physical Characteristics of the NE Forests & brilliant fall colors (thanks to

a combo of precipitation, type of soil, variety of trees) Rocky coastline of Maine New Yorks beautiful Niagara Falls Farmlands of Pennsylvania

Natural Resources of the Northeast Resources Rocky soil makes it

difficult to farm Appalachians form natural barrier Some coal in PA Water! reason the NE region became the center of trade, commerce & industry

Economic Activity Commerce natural harbors used by merchant ships Fishing plentiful fish Shipping B. Natural Resources of the NE 1. Poor farm land rocky soil, steep hills

2. Few natural resources ex. for coal in PA 3. Water made NE center of trade, commerce and industry a. Commerce natural harbors used merchant ships, worldwide trade b. fishing industry C. A Leader in Industry 1. Hilly landscape + abundant precip.= swift moving water: used to power early

factories. Built at waterfalls along regions rivers 2. River Valleys = trade routes, RR routes, later hwy routes 3. By 1900, NE = most productive manufacturing region in the world Dam on a Lowell, MA canal - used to divert water for water-run factories

Lowell, MA factory: water can still be seen coming out of the bottom of the building - though none use water power today. II. The South (MD, DE, VA, WV, KY, NC, SC, GA, FL, TN, TX, OK, LA, MS, AR, AL) A. Climate & Vegetation 1. Subtropical Climate

a. Closer to eq. = warmer climate b. Close to Gulf of Mexico & Caribbean Sea = ample precipitation 2. Forests: pine & mangroves 3. Bayous, swamps & grasslands 4. SW states (OK, TX) = drier, prairies

Mangroves B. Climate, History, Agriculture 1. Rich soil in coastal plains + long growing season = Agriculture a. Tobacco, cotton, rice plantations (labor intensive) b. Led to growth of slavery in the region

2. Remote areas in Appalachians = poorest areas in US a. Rocky soil, steep slopes = unproductive farmland b. Very little industry

C. Resources & Industry 1. 1800s: textile mills along fast-moving streams of piedmont section of the Carolinas; built on the fall line water powered mills a. Piedmont = areas at or near foot of mt region b. Fall line = boundary btwn piedmont & coastal plain c. Place where rivers & streams form

waterfalls & rapids 2. 1900s some of the largest oil reserves in US in Gulf Coast Region 3. Manufacturing growth along Gulf Coast a. Abundant raw materials b. Sources of energy c. Access to ports Houston Ship Channel

Port of New Orleans D. Changes in the South 1. Continued Growth of industry biz moving north to south why? a. Better climate b. Southern factories newer better condition, more efficient c. Land cheaper than NE

d. Less labor unions cheaper labor 2. The Sunbelt band of southern states from Carolinas to California a. Biz moving south b. Growth of Tourism c. Retirement elderly from North move South to escape harsh winters E. Southern Population

1. Varied a. Over black American pop. in south ( & more moving south reverse of post-Civil War trend) b. Hispanics moving from Mexico & other Latin American countries c. Cubans in FL escape communist regime in Cuba d. LA = French Ancestry

2. Major Cities a. New Orleans major trading center/port at mouth of Mississippi R. b. Miami gateway to Caribbean & S. America c. Atlanta major airline hub d. Houston industrial & trading, NASA, oil e. Dallas biz & electronics center 3. Washington DC not a state, nations capital

III. The Midwest (ND,SD,MN,WI,MI,NE,KS,IA,MO, IL,IN,OH) A. An Agricultural Economy 1. Characteristics a. Flat, fertile soil (humus) b. Climate (cold winters, long, warm summers

2. Regional variations growing season diff. in diff. parts of MW according to temp/precip. a. IL, IN, IA = soybeans, corn, hogs b. Great Plains = wheat, oats, etc c. Northern states = dairy cattle, hay 3. Nations Breadbasket MW farms most productive in world wheat, corn, soybeans, hogs B. Commercial Farms

1. Farming technology a. McCormick Reaper allowed farmers to harvest vast amts of wheat quickly b. Later tech. allowed farmers to produce more, faster, w/ fewer workers - D. Transportation & Industry 1. RRs & waterways (Great Lakes & Miss. River) link MWs major cities to e/o and to other regions

2. Chicago = largest city. a. Most important US RR hub grain, livestock in from west, processed/slaughtered, then shipped east b. Port on Lake MI c. OHare Airport = 1 of worlds busiest 3. Water Transp. Led to growth of heavy industry autos (Detroit), machinery IV. The West

( WA, OR, CA, ID, NV, AZ, MT, WY, UT, CO, NM, HI, AK) Largest Most sparsely populated region A. Water (or lack of it) 1.

Most of West = arid/semi-arid climate affects pop. density, vegetation, economic activities. Driest in SW 2. Coast = adequate rainfall. Tall trees & forests 3. Hawaii = tropical wet

4. Alaska = tundra (dry, treeless plain) B. Natural Resources & the Economy 1. Minerals a. Gold & silver deposits contributed to settlement of the west b. Camp followers biz & people who moved west to service the mines

(Levi Strauss)

Oil & Gas in Alaska Fishing & Forestry a. ~ lumber taken from NW states b. Pacific Coast = lrg fishing industry Interior West (the dry part) a. Livestock & wheat b. Potential water scarcity due to irrigation & overuse 5. Tourism

C. The Growth of Western Cities 1. 2. CA = most populous US state West coast = 2nd in importance to BOSWASH megalopolis a. Ag = 80% of CA water supply b. Aqueducts carry water from mts

3. LA: began as cattle town, then aircraft industry, then movie industry Silicon Valley leading center of computer tech. software cos. Alaska = lrgest land area, most sparsely populated oil Hawaii = military facilities, ag, tourism

- 8 main islands 4. a. b. D. Conquering Western Distances 1.

Alaska lrgest in land area, most sparsely populated a. Not well connected by roads b. Mts cover much of it - capital city of Juneau can only be reached by boat or plane

- only 2 rds leading out of town in Anchorage c. Oil 2. Hawaii a. 8 main islands + 100s of small ones in Pacific b. US govt 1st interested in

islands as a refueling station for US naval ships & merchant ships traveling to China & Japan for trade - natural harbor (Pearl Harbor) c. 50th state (1959) d. Hawaii now popular

tourist destination accessible by plane Fun facts about Canada 10 provinces + 3 territories

Population: 33,098,932 (July 2006 est.) Literacy Rate: 99% Govt: constitutional monarchy that is also a parliamentary democracy and a federation Chief of State: Queen Elizabeth II Head of Govt: Prime Minister Stephen Harper Capital = Ottawa I. Regions of Canada

A. Atlantic Provinces Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick 1. Links to the sea All border the Atlantic a. Maritimes close ties to the sea b. Coast many bays, inlets, harbors c. Smallest provinces: 5% of land; 8% of population d. Economically disadvantaged

2. Economic Activities a. Fishing but over-fishing a problem b. Forestry & farming (PEI) c. Tourism d. Offshore oil B. The Great Lakes & St. Lawrence provinces Ontario & Quebec 1. Core of Canadas population & economic

activity a. Canadian Shield: poor soil & climate, but rich in mineral deposits b. Hudson Bay Lowlands: flat, sparsely populated, marshy c. St. Lawrence lowlands: rich soil, milder climate, 60% of Canadas population 2. Characteristics of Ontario central location,

excellent waterways, rich soil, abundant resources a. St. Lawrence Seaway connects Great Lakes to St. Lawrence R -- Canadas hwy to the sea b. Great Lakes differ in elevation connected by a series of locks (see pg 183 for diagram & description) c. Toronto lrgest metropolitan city in Canada

-- banking & financial center d. Ottawa = capital of Canada 3. Characteristics of Quebec a. largest province in land area b. Most live in cities along St. Lawrence c. Sparsely populated along Canadian Shield d. Mining & forestry in north e. Montreal Quebecs largest city

f. Center of Quebecs French-Canadian population g. Active separatist movement C. The Prairie Provinces - Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan - btwn Rocky mts & Canadian Shield 1. Patterns of Settlement a. Lrg cities along RR routes

b. Rain lines & Ag trains & plains 2. Economic Activities a. Grain (wheat), cattle b. Tourism c. Oil Industry D. British Columbia 1. Mountainous a. So much of BC covered in mts, so 4/5

residents live in city of Vancouver b. Many offshore islands marine west coast climate 2. Economic Activities a. Fishing b. Forests c. Minerals d. Tourism e. Harbors trade w/ Pacific nations

E. The Northern Territories - 40% of Canada land area, less than 1% of population 1. A changing culture a. Inuit Native Americans - seal hunting, whaling b. Have adopted new tech: snowmobiles, satellite TV

2. A difficult environment a. Rich deposits of minerals oil, gas, iron b. Harsh climate & rugged terrain make it difficult to extract or transport II. The Search for a National Identity A. Understanding the Past - 40% British, 27% French Ancestry 1. The First Canadians

a. Inuit Native Americans lived in villages along Pacific coast b. 1500s colonization English & French 2. Colonial Rivalries vs a. French vs. English - wars btwn the two by 1763, French surrendered all its territory in Canada to Brits

b. Ties to Britian - under Brit rule til 1867: Canada had its own govt, but answered to Brits - officially independent in 1931, but Canadas symbolic ruler is still British Monarch - unlike US, Canada achieved its independence peacefully through negotiation not through war Queen

Elizabeth II B. Conflict Btwn 2 Cultures 1. French Culture a. French-Canadian Pop = of total pop. b. Most live in Quebec c. When Canada independent, govt guaranteed rights of French-speaking citizens d. Today, both English and French are

official languages of Canada - only 15% of Canadians are bilingual 2. Discontent a. Many French-Canadians feel discriminated against by Englishspeaking majority claim they are denied govt jobs, industry b. Many pushed for separation a move to make Quebec separate, independent country

c. 1974 French made official language Quebec - many English-speaking residents & biz left d. 1995 Quebec voted to decide whether to secede from Canada. Voted by a small margin to remain part of Canada (50.6% to 49.4%)

e. 1998 Canadas high court declared that Quebec cant secede even if their voters eventually approve separation C. Welcoming Diversity, Promoting Unity 1. A Multicultural Society a. Inuit in territories b. Immigration from Europe & Asia

(BC) 2. Uniting Canadas Regions a. United through transportation & communication b. National unity is difficult as citizens tend to identify w/ province rather than nation III. Canada Today 1. Natural Resources a. Difficult to balance need for NR w/

need to preserve environment b. Difficult to transport oil & gas w/o disrupting animal habitat c. Lumber & over-fishing 2. Urbanization a. Challenge to provide housing & other social services b. Difficult to control pollution & overcrowding B. Links with US 5000 mile long

border 1. Cultural Links a. People living along border share TV/Radio/Sports 2. Economic Links a. Canada buys 25% of US exports b. US buys 85% of Canadas exports c. NAFTA d. Uneven Relationship Canadians feel

overshadowed by US C. Links with the world 1. Importance of location a. Major ports of Atlantic & Pacific b. Trade w/ Europe & Asia 2. Member of Commonwealth a. Links with other former British colonies b. Links with developing nations

c. Role of Peace-keeper active in arms control, disarmament The British Commonwealth

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