Unit 6 The Middle Ages The Barbarian Invasions When Rome fell barbarian groups began to occupy their own territory --Angles & Saxons (England) --Visigoths (Spain) --Franks (France) --Constant war and chaos led to breakdown of trade, cities became unsafe and abandoned, learning of
the ancient world was lost --People moved to the country and lived in fortified castles --Churches and Monasteries become the only places of literacy The Rise of the Franks Franks established largest of Germanic Kingdoms, united by Charles Martel Defeats Muslim armies at the Battle of Tours in 732
Frankish kings began practice of seizing land to give to knights for their military service http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=crejWfattI8 Reign of Charlemagne Charlemagne expanded his Kingdom and created an empire expanded practice of land for service and encouraged
it among nobles, knights, and peasants --used aggressive war techniques and divided his kingdom but kept a close eye on lords and nobles --constructed beautiful buildings --promoted learning and attracted the best scholars Reign of Charlemagne
At the request of the Pope becomes Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 800 A.D. --Western Europe now independent of Byzantines --New political and religious unity of Western Europe under Christianity --After his death empire divided amongst his sons Europe faces new threats
With Charlemagnes death new groups invaded EuropeSlavs, Magyars, Muslims Greatest threat was from the Vikings, in Northern Europe, who attack coastlines in search of trade, loot, and land --great sailors who used their longboats and vicious fighting ability to spread
destruction --Vikings did create new trade routes and settlement throughout Europe Feudal Society (800-1400) Feudalismbegins in Europe out of need to provide for basic security and protection --created to help people survive the breakdown of central government Kings offer nobles grant of land (fief) in
exchange for loyalty & service Nobles (lords) provide knights to the king Knights were given land by nobles in exchange for their service Peasants (serfs)were given protection in return for labor http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=6WHRxXY67UA&feature=PlayList&p=4671DC6E845906D1&playnext=1&index=9 The Feudal Structure In Feudalism, there was NO SOCIAL
MOBILITY! Hence, why it lasted for so long. Feudal Society (800-1400) Socialcreated a strict class structure based on land to vassals in exchange for service --people could not change their social position Politicalking based rulings on advice of his nobles --build large castles and build
large armies of knights --often fought with each other or king in an attempt to grab more land --gave Nobles tremendous power and influence Feudal Society (800-1400) Economic most people live on self sufficient manors Manorialism-- lords land where peasants (serfs ) work to produce their own food, clothing and shelter
Peasant (Serfs)Life-styles Peasants (serfs) are completely tied to the land and the laws of the Lord Peasants raised the animals and farmed using the threefield system to rotate crops seasonally, bad weather often led to famine Most serfs were farmers working long hours year round only religious days
provided a break and lifeline Medieval Manor Women in the Middle Ages Role of women in Middle Ages was determined by the attitudes of the Catholic Church Wanted women to be obedient to men (like Eve) and bear children Extended families were common(many related peasants lived with or close to one another) Womens lifestyles depended on status
--Noble women (prayers and domestic chores), little education Chivalry--A code of conduct for knights to follow (raised the status of noble women in feudal society) --Peasant women (worked with men in fields and ran household) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yfMTsYcLt10 Feudalism Political Write a two sentence
summary of the effects of Feudalism on Western Europe for each. Economic Social Age of Faith During Middle Ages the Catholic Church was the single
most powerful organization in Western Europe The pope was head of the Church Christians were united by faith and belief that the Church held the power to send them to heaven or hell Church was largest landowner in Europe and created wealth through tithes (church taxes) Church was the main center of learning--church officials usually only ones who could read and
write, relied on by rulers because of education Outreachpossessed monasteries, abbeys, and convents throughout Europe to spread their message Two Christian Thinkers St. AugustineAppealed to faith in God for salvation --documented the fall of Rome and concluded that only heaven is eternal St. Thomas Aquinaswrote
Summa Theologica which stated that Christian teachings were compatible with reason and natural law (not passed by govts) --men use natural laws to judge govt laws and could overthrow unjust rulers(God through the people) Crusades Christian Europeans
and Muslims fight for control of the Holy Land --Christian pilgrims not allowed access to Holy Land by Seljuk Turks Pope Urban II calls on all Christians to unite and fight a Crusade(Holy war) to recapture holy land from Muslims --Church promises salvation to all who participate
Pope Urban II Sermon Calling for the First Crusade: Begin the journey to the Holy Sepulcher; conquer that land which the wicked have seized, the land given by God to the children of Israel and which, as the Scripture says, is all milk and honey. Undertake this journey for [forgiveness] of your sins, with the promise of glory which will not fade in Heaven. When you make an armed attack on the enemy, let all those on Gods side cry out, God will it! What were some of the reasons that inspired Europeans to take part in the Crusades?
Call to free the Holy Land Crusades bring rulers across Europe together for a common cause, three major Crusades (1) Crusaders capture Jerusalem and organize formal states (2) Saladin takes Jerusalem (3) Richard I negotiates access to holyland for Christian pilgrims Effects of Crusades
--expose Europeans to new ideas and goods (use of zero, silk, perfumes) --increased trade between Europe and Middle East Crusade Map Role of the Church Power Describe the influence of the
Catholic Church during the Middle Ages for each in one sentence. Learning and Art Crusades The Later Middle Ages Trade begins to revive in manors, cities and towns, new merchant class grows with demand
--Merchants and craftsman organize into powerful associations known as guilds --with wealth comes inventions (windmills, watermills), and founding of universities (Bologna and Paris) Church builds large cathedrals, using gothic architecture (pointed arches, spires, stained glass windows) What characteristics make these two buildings
alike? How are they different? What is the Churchs purpose in building structures like this? The Greek Parthenon Chartres Cathedral English Political Traditions English Nobles rebel against taxes and forced loans of King John King John forced to sign
the Magna Carta in 1215 it guaranteed: --right to trial by jury --king has to have consent of nobles to raise taxes (leads to formation of Parliament) --limited monarchy The End of the Middle Ages Several factors and events contributed to the end of Medieval Europe
The Great Famine (13131322) heavy rains lead to food shortages in Europe --people begin to question--why Church let this happen The Black Death (Bubonic Plague) (13471351)rats carrying infected fleas entered Europe from Asian trading ships --25 million die (1/3 pop. of Europe), shortage of labor led to decline of serfdom
--Black Death led people again to question the church, fear plague is 1348 Marchione di Coppo Stefani recorded his observations of the spread of the Black Death in his native Florence. Read his reaction to the Black Death. In the year of the Lord 1348 there was a great pestilence in the city of Florence . It was of such a fury that in houses in which it took hold healthy servants who took care of the ill died. Almost none of the ill survived past the fourth day. Neither physicians nor medicines were effective. There seemed to be no cure. There was such a fear that no one seemed to know what to do. When it took hold in a house it often happened that no one
remained who had not died. And it was not just that men and women died, but even animals died. At every church, they dug deep trenches, down to the waterline, depending on how large the parish was. And those who were responsible for the dead carried them on their backs in the night and threw them into the ditch, or else they paid a high price to those who would do it for them. What impact did the plague have on Florence and how did the people react? Plague spreads quickly through Europe
The End of the Middle Ages Hundred Years War (13371453)between England & France over a claim to the French Throne --strengthens royal power in both countries (kings built own armies and didnt rely on nobles) --new technology (longbow, gunpowder, canons) and armies make knights less important Joan of Arc leads the French and drives the English out of Orleans, later captured and burned as heretic The End of the Middle Ages The Great Schism (13781417)Pope
clashes with European kings over treatment of clergy, Church land and taxes Split papacy (pope) between Avignon, France and Rome Church Council finally elects one new pope, and moves Papacy to Rome People begin to question the authority
of the Church End of the Middle Ages Describe the role that each played in ending the middle ages The Crusades The Black Death The Great Schism The Hundred
Years War End of the Middle Ages Review 1st Divide you paper into four square sections and write each of the four causes at the top 2nd Rank each based on how important you feel it was in ending the Middle Ages --1 is the most important, 4 is the least important 3rd write one sentence supporting why you gave each the ranking that you did 4th draw a picture that best represents your supporting reason 5th be prepared to present your poster to the class
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