UNIT A HUMAN ACTIVITY AND BIODIVERSITY 4.1 REDUCTION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OUTCOMES
Describe ongoing changes in biological diversity through extinction and extirpation of native species. 4.1 REDUCTION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY Species and ecosystems on Earth and the
ecological processes of which they are apart are being stressed by urbanization and the expansion of human industries TRY: Work with a partner and do Give it a Try on page 57
CLASSIFICATION OF IN DANGER SPECIES There are 5 classifications that we use to describe species that humans are concerned about
Extinct Extirpated Endangered
Threatened Vulnerable/ Special Concern EXTINCTION The disappearance of every individual of a species from the entire planet Scientists estimate that 99% of all species that
have ever existed are now extinct (Dinosaurs) Some species are brought to extinction through catastrophic events which happens quickly and others occur slowly through human interaction Example: The Dodo bird, Great Auk EXTINCT ANIMALS
EXTIRPATION The disappearance of a species from a particular area Example: Grizzly Bear (used to be found all the way in Manitoba) Example: Swift Fox used to be common in Canada
but by 1928 it was extirpated from Canada NOTE: Extirpation MUST include a location EXTIRPATED ANIMALS ENDANGERED Species that are in immediate danger of
extinction or extirpation Example: The Burrowing Owl, Leatherback Turtles ENDANGERED ANIMALS OF CANADA THREATENED Species that are likely to become endangered if
their current declines are not reversed Example: Wood Bison THREATENED SPECIES VULNERABLE/ SPECIAL CONCERN Species that are particularly vulnerable to natural
events or human activities Northern Leopard Frog NATURAL CAUSES OF EXTINCTION AND EXTIRPATION Natural selection usually occurs in a slow process, but if the environment of a species
changes too quickly or too drastically a species may not survive. Some possible causes: Catastrophic Events (flood, fire, volcanic eruptions) Lack of food due to overpopulation Disease
HUMAN CAUSES OF EXTINCTION AND EXTIRPATIONS Today, most extinctions and extirpations are due to human activity. Habitat Destruction Introduction of Non-Native Species Over-Hunting
HABITAT DESTRUCTION Construction of buildings, agricultural development, logging and the damming of rivers all change the environment. Pollution is also included in habitat destruction. Pesticides, Herbicides and fertilizers used in
farming can be washed into the nearby water system and unintentionally cause the death of native species. OVERSPECIALIZATION Sometimes organisms have adaptations that suit them to only a narrow set of environmental
conditions. This overspecialization can be a cause of extinction or extirpation Example: Pandas only eat Bamboo. It cannot switch to another source of food. So if the forests were destroyed the Panda would become extinct.
THE PAGE OF CUTENESS! INTRODUCTION OF NON-NATIVE SPECIES Throughout our history, migrating humans have both knowingly and unknowingly carried nonnative species with them. These species will compete with the native
species over niches. Example: Zebra Mussles, Quagga Mussles, Thistles and Dandelions. EXAMPLES OF NON-NATIVE SPECIES OVER-HUNTING
When a species is hunted too much, they can become extirpated from that area. Example: The Passenger Pigeon. They were hunted mainly for sport, but were overhunted leading to their extinction. Also, the Plains Bison was over hunted by First Nations communities and Immigrants for the meat, bones and the hide
were all used for survival. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f-jhWtY8_NU Bison conservation today. PASSENGER PIGEONS EFFECTS OF EXTINCTION AND
EXTIRPATION Extinction and Extirpations reduce biological diversity They reduce the number of species on the planet and within particular areas. It can also effect many other species, such as those that rely on them as a source of food.
THINK ABOUT IT! Exploring pg 4/5 Think about it! Do you believe that the Y2Y program is necessary for the protection of animals in the Mountain Parks?
4.2 SELECTING DESIRABLE TRAITS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EhkYc7fHcR0 OUTCOMES Identify issues related to selective breeding in game farming and in the rearing of fish stocks Describe newly emerging technologies for
recombining genetic material; and identify issues related to their application Describe the use of biotechnology in environmental, agricultural, or forest management. Identify potential impacts and issues
ARTIFICIAL SELECTION The process of selecting and breeding individuals with desirable traits to produce offspring that have these desirable traits What is the difference between artificial selection and natural selection?
ARTIFICIAL SELECTION Artificial Selection can be applied to animals, food and ornamental plants. Since the beginning of farming humans have practiced artificial selection. Example: Corn
RISKS IN ANIMALS Artificial selection can reduce genetic variation by creating many offspring of the same individual animals Having many animals that are genetically identical are more likely to get diseases that genetically differing herds of animals
RISKS IN PLANTS Many of our crops were produced by artificial selection of wild plants There has also been genetic engineering done to the crops to try and make them resistant to herbicide so that the crops can be sprayed and
only the weeds die Many crop plants can still cross with their wild weed relatives and some weeds can become resistant to herbicides BIOTECHNOLOGY Biotechnology is using living things to make
agricultural, industrial or medicinal products. Farmers and ranchers began using biotechnology many years ago to improve their crops and herds. How would they do this? It takes many generations to successfully get an organism with desired traits
CREATING PLANT CLONES Originally horticulturalists cloned a plant by taking a cutting off of it and growing an identical version of it Today scientists can clone faster by taking a cell from an individual plant with desirable traits and place it in a Petri dish where they can grow into
seedlings Many more seedlings can be grown through cloning a cell than through cuttings ARTIFICIAL REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY Artificial Reproductive Technology is any artificial
method of joining a male and female gamete Most cows in Canada are produced this way Artificial insemination us when sperm are taken from a bull with the desired traits and the sperm is inserted into the female cow What is the benefit of artificial insemination?
GENETIC ENGINEERING Refers to any technology that directly alters the DNA of an organism This usually consists of inserting a desirable gene from one species into another Example: Some genetically modified bacteria now produce insulin because of a gene inserted into
them Diabetics need insulin and since bacteria grow so quickly they can produce a lot of insulin which allows it to be sold cheaply BIOTECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY Development of technology that allows us to
select or introduce desirable traits of the organism around us have given humans some important benefits However we need to use these technologies responsibly and be aware of the possible risks as well as the benefits
CLONING Scientists are able to produce an identical copy of a single animal The most famous example is a sheep named Dolly who is genetically identical to her mother Dolly was made from a full-grown mother Even though Dolly is 6 years younger than her
mother her cells appear the same as her mothers CLONING Cloning is still in its early stages Many have reported unsuccessful pregnancies, birth defects, and deaths among clones.
DOLLY THE SHEEP THINK ABOUT IT! Read pg 70 Answer the Questions in the Evaluation and Analysis Section
4.3 REDUCING OUR IMPACT ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OUTCOMES Evaluate the success and limitations of various local and global strategies for minimizing loss of species diversity
JIGSAW LEARNING ACTIVITY Split the class into 5 groups
Protected Areas Restoration of Ecosystems and Species Resource Use Policies Controlling the Spread of Exotic Species Conservation of Genetic Resources
All groups read their section between 73-76 and write down at least 3 points of importance from their section You will then have to teach other groups about your three points
STRATEGIES TO CONSERVE BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY To ensure biological diversity we need to eliminate bad impacts to the environment due to human activity. The Canadian Biodiversity Strategy focuses on insitu (on site) and ex-situ (off site) conservation and helping promote sustainable use of
resources. PROTECTED AREA (IN SITU CONSERVATION) Protected areas allows species to live in their natural environment Protected areas include national and provincial
parks, recreation areas and ecological preserves In-situ conservation allows populations of organisms to function in their ecosystem RESTORATION OF ECOSYSTEMS AND SPECIES Charities, non-profit organizations, volunteer
groups and landowners contribute to restoring species and natural habitats by giving land and helping land be kept in a state where organisms can live. RESOURCE USE POLICIES Federal and provincial government laws that help
species that are endangered CONTROLLING THE SPREAD OF EXOTIC SPECIES Federal, provincial and municipal governments work to develop policies to stop the spread of exotic species.
CONSERVATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES Ex-situ, which is working on conserving biological diversity outside of a natural habitat, can help endangered species. Seed banks can help maintain biological diversity
in plants Maintaining animal diversity is harder and sometimes can be done in zoos or using artificial reproduction technologies TO DO: Unit A Project Research a Species at Risk in
Alberta Start studying Read through Unit Summary on page 80 and make notes what things you really need to study Answer questions 1-33
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