Part 3: Citizens, Society & the State FALL 2015 Social Cleavages For much of British history based on: Multi-National Identities English (77%) Welsh (4.5%)
Scottish (7.9%) Northern Irish (2.7%) Religion Catholics (mostly Irish) vs. Protestants (mostly Scottish & English) primarily before 1998 Social Cleavages Discussion Question: How has devolution impacted social cleavages: Weakened or strengthened them? How? Social Cleavages
Discussion Question: How has devolution impacted social cleavages: Weakened or strengthened them? How? UK devolution created: national Parliament in Scotland (national flag, currency, referendum!) national Assembly in Wales (Welsh language, flag) national Assembly in Northern Ireland (Good Friday Agreement in 1998) Have much more control over regional issues; less likely to separate? Social Cleavages
More Recently Ethnic Minorities Only about 7.1% of British pop is of nonEuropean origins: 23% Indian (1.8% of total population) 16% Pakistani (1.3% of total population) 12.2% Afro-Caribbean 10.5% Black BUT minority ethnic population grew by 53% between 1991 2001
Also, immigrants from Eastern European countries (EU) has increased 2nd most spoken language in UK Polish! Social Cleavages Treatment of Minorities Minorities have experienced some discrimination: Ethnic minorities disproportionately suffer diminished opportunities
Unequal treatment by police (esp young men) Physical harassment by citizens Marginalization in education, job training, housing & labor But some have also been very successful Among men of African, Asian, Chinese & Indian descent, the proportional representation in managerial/professional ranks is actually higher than that for white men British South Asians (esp Indians) have high rate of entrepreneurship Social Cleavages Discussion Question: Based on what you know so far, why do you think Pakistani Muslims have faced more discrimination than
other ethnic minorities? Social Cleavages Discussion Question: Based on what you know so far, why do you think Pakistani Muslims have faced more discrimination than other ethnic minorities? Attacks on 9/11 & 7/7 Largest group of British Muslims come from Pakistan Muslims have an identity of being a minority distinct form a well-established majority
Many British Muslims are disaffected and unemployed Lack of integration into British culture Cleavage is coinciding! Ethnicity, Religion, Social Class Social Cleavages Social Class Distinctions Historically working class vs middle-class Education (most important portal to elite classes is through Oxford & Cambridge) Geographic-Economic
South of England vs north of England, Scotland, and Wales Wealth and high tech industry centered in South England New British Social Classes? Political Socialization & Participation Socialization
Family Schools (civics courses) Media (BBC) Participation Voting around 70% (down in recent elections) Voting behavior still tied to social class and region Social Movements
Not as strong Centered on issues (Iraq war, environment, etc) Linkage Institutions Political Parties (see student presentations) Question to consider: To what degree do Political Parties address social cleavages? Interest Groups Interest group pluralism
Most influential interest groups are those tied to class and industry Confederation of British Industry Trades Union Congress National Farmers Union British Medical Association Neo-corporatism: interest groups (peak associations) take the lead and sometimes dominate the state Linkage Institutions Greatest influence of British interest groups
comes through quangos Quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organizations Created by Parliament to put govt and private interests together on policymaking board Recent trend toward eliminating and reforming quangos to save $
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