US History to 1865

US History to 1865

US History to 1865 Chapter 4: Struggles 1 Concepts & Issues 1. how slavery functioned 2. African American culture 3. liberty in 1700s 4. colonial politics in 1700s 5. Great Awakening

6. Seven Years War 2 Slavery 1500-1800 8 m Africans imported as slaves; in last 100 yrs Strictly business keystone of Br/colonial bus Licenses for exclusive import-export rights in slaves Sp gave asiento (license) to D D could trade in S.Amer

1713: Treaty of Utrecht Br took asiento from D slavery imp in the colonies sugar, rice, tobacco, coffee Sugar 3 Triangle Trade Based in Atlantic Ocean

Africa > New World > Eur Br sent finished products, imported agric goods Br moved slaves to West Indies, NA ** Northern colonies involved, too New Englanders & NYorkers brokers, middlemen > traded in slaves !! NY Harbor - 50% of its bus w West Indies NYC really started UK Liverpool, Bristol large port cities 4 Middle Passage

Name for slaves journey across Atlantic Main part of journey Slaves layered on ships Traders allowed for less than 2 ft per layer Chains Epidemics over 10% d By late 1700s 20% of foreign pop were African 5 Slavery

3 types in Colonial Amer A. Chesapeake slavery tobacco B. Carolina & Georgia slavery rice C. New England & Middle Colonies (NY, NJ & PA) slavery other jobs 6 Chesapeake Slavery major crop VA & MD slaves became diversified boatmen,

crafts, house-servants Even small-holders had at least 1 Class structure solidified racial issues became part of Kept social divisions limited rights of freemen (3%) ban on them hiring whites, touching whites VA govt did not regard freemen as English & freedom did not apply 7 Carolina Slavery At first, settlers worried about Sp on border, hostile Nat Amer > needed to allow blacks

more rights, carry weapons, fight in militia Cattle, plantations, farms Exported slaves Rice later began growing rice huge market needed to import slaves social divides dev because more slaves in Carolinas 8 Carolina Slavery

Early 1700s Carolina divided > N & S SC had African American majority (only NA colony) SC had wealthiest whites Rice: - slaves taught cultivation to whites - landowners adapted their property irrigated lands - landowners maximized the size of their estates Africans resistant to malaria they really ran the rice farms - independent 9 Slavery in NE & Middle Colonies

Slavery less imp in North Few tobacco farms, cattle Many white families had 1 slave ~ servant Whites never felt threatened NY D used slaves NYC became a trade center & used slaves slaves 30% of workforce more industry in North people used wage labor hire/fire as needed preferred to slaves econ decisions 10 Black Culture

300,000 Never unified language, customs, faiths Did not see each other as community, but shared a social situation being slaves 1800s more blended less tribal more slaves had been born in NA Chesapeake mid 1700s slave pop healthy, increased - families, communities - English language - Christianity 11

Black Culture SC & GA - harsh conditions > fewer locally-born slaves, constant newcomers - slaves isolated from whites > more independence > African culture more evident > Gullah - fewer families

12 Black Culture 2 cities Savannah, GA & Charleston, SC Semi-skilled slaves worked there Servant women had children w white men > mulattos some became free Cities - gave African Americans more freedom

-- few families 13 Slaves & Rebellion Escapes 1712 rebellion in NYC public executions of rebel slaves Slaves often rebelled during wartime Br v Fr or Br v Nat Amer 14 Freedom & Colonies

Republicanism Liberalism Republicanism govt w/o supreme ruler; all participate in govt all for public good People had to be rich to devote themselves to public service 15 Freedom

Liberalism an individual feeling, beliefsystem John Locke 17th century Br philosopher man & govt had a social contract rule of law existed to protect people - > or else govt could be overthrown Protect property key issue Only wealthy would get full justice in practice they had property 16 Freedom

Locke contradictions Hated slavery Invested in a major slave trading company Helped write the Fundamental Constitution of Carolina harsh racial policies 17 The Public

Voting this right is called the franchise - good measure of democracy - higher percentage could vote in NA compared w UK - only property-owning men seen as having an opinion being invested in society - few women, no racial/relig minorities could vote -freemen sometimes voted Nat Amer rarely allowed 18 The Public

Elections not free few candidates ran all from elites Middle Cols most democratic To run: - land requirement - pay a special tax 19 Colonial Govt

- tensions between wealthy & govt officials, incl governors Governors often in power to make $$ Freedom of expression: - limited freedom of speech - freedom of speech 16th century Britain only for parliamentarians, not regular people MPs need to discuss & debate 20 Colonial Govt

Regular Englishmen no protection Freedom of press: - Until ~ 1700s no freedom of press in UK - all printed material needed govt license - risk of charge of seditious libel > criticize govt 21 Colonial Govt Freedom of Press:

- chaos in Colonies newspapers published many, incl Ben Franklins brother, James, charged w crimes Zenger Case 1735 John Zenger tried in NY libel of governor found not guilty important to expose truth 22 The Enlightenment in America 1700s - ^^ in Eur more philosophical began to trust reason, not religion

Benjamin Franklin American thinker, scientist (electricity), diplomat & politician led Amer Enlightenment Criticized wealthy elites for doing nothing Questioned religious figures 23 Enlightenment American beliefs: A. Arminianism reason is only religion B. Deism God exists but neutral study nature Newtons laws applied to everything universals > inspired Deists to abandon religion Jefferson, Franklin

24 Great Awakening Reaction to Enlightenment Fundamentalist Christianity revival in 1730s wave of new relig enthusiasm Reverend George Whitefield traveled from Br to Colonies very charismatic people can be saved 25

Great Awakening Effects: 1. social tensions incr 2. anti-immorality against drinking, gambling, prostitution 3. believers condemned slavery some freed their slaves African Americans joined churches 26

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