V. Geopolitics

V. Geopolitics

V. Geopolitics Considers the strategic value of land and sea area in the context of national economic and military power and ambitions power relationships: past, present, and future Ambitious Historical Movements in Geopolitics Manifest Destiny-U.S. 1800s-policy of imperialism in the United States. The U.S. would spread from coast to coast. This attitude fueled westward expansion, Native American removal and a war with Mexico.

Monroe Doctrine-1820s-no more colonies for European states in the Western Hemisphere Greater East-Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere-cultural and economic unity of Asians and Oceanians (Free of Western Powers and Influence) Geopolitics German School Ratzels Organic Theory (late 1800s) Ratzel was trained in biology and chemistry and greatly influenced by the theories of Charles Darwin.

a) Held that a state which is an aggregate of organisms would itself function and behave as an organism b) Nourishment of organism provided by acquisition of territories and people; especially if those people are of the same culture c) Territory is essential to life. d) Nazi expansion policies based on some of Ratzels

ideas. Geopolitics British/American School Sir Halford Mackinder Heartland Theory (1904) a) Believed a land-based power, not a sea power,

would ultimately rule the world b) Pivot area extended from Eastern Europe to eastern Siberia Mackinder Heartland Theory The Heartland is impenetrable The Heartland is the geographical pivot-provided a base for world conquest

Resource rich Believed that a Russian, Chinese, German alliance was to be feared Mackinder Heartland Theory Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Who rules the Heartland commands

the World Island Who rules the World Island commands the World Geopolitics Nicholas Spykman - Rimland Theory Critic of Mackinder Argued that the Eurasian rim, not its heart, held the

key to global power Spykman-Rimland Fragmented zone Divided rimland key to balance of world power Dense population, abundant resources, controlling access to both the sea and the interior

Spykman-Rimland Who controls the Rimland controls Eurasia Who rules Eurasia controls the destiny of the world Heartland/Rimland Theories Combined Geopolitical Developments in a

Bipolar World Post WWII Heartland = U.S.S.R U.S. practiced Containment Confining the U.S.S.R by means of alliances with Rimland

Military intervention NATO Domino Theory Saul Cohen, The Cold War and Shatterbelt Theory Mackinder died in 1947. However, his legacy would live on throughout the Cold War era. Saul Cohen proposed the Shatterbelt Theory-modified Mackinders Heartland

Theory and called it the Pivot area and Spykmans Rimland Theory and called it the Inner Crescent. He identified the rest of the world as the Outer Crescent. Cohen proposed that most of the conflict in the world would be found in the Inner Crescent. These areas of potential conflict, political instability or geopolitical weakness would then become known as shatterbelts (Middle East and Africa). Cohen accurately identified many areas of the world that would experience conflict from 1950-1991 (during the Cold War era) Some conflict areas that powerful states would attempt to capture would be used

as buffer states-lands that would create a buffer of sympathetic countries. Shatterbelt Theory Geopolitics Today Thoughts were that world events have rendered older geopolitical ideas obsolete. Or, are they? What about Vladimir Putin and his invasion of Georgia and Ukraine (claiming Crimean Peninsula)?

o End of the Cold War (at least in the eyes of the U.S.), Nuclear Technology limited (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons) o Japan, China, Western Europe becoming world powers through economic means No more Unilateralism Is U.S. dominance over? Have we gone soft?, trying to seek involvement of other states in world affairs?

Russian application of Heartland, Rimland Theories Is Putin an imperialist? Is he trying to re-establish the former glory of the Soviet Union? U.S. Foreign Policy Strategies/Principles 1.

2. 3. 4. Isolationism-state tends to domestic affairs only Realism-take active role in international affairs; high profile procurement/proliferation Neo-isolationism-keep foreign involvement to a

minimum (only when necessary) Idealism-foreign involvement for good of all countries ***What is your current foreign policy for STATE?

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