VERB USAGE DARTS: I can: 1.Identify and use the six major verb tenses correctly. 2.Identify and understand the four principal parts of verbs. 3.Conjugate regular and irregular verbs correctly.
VERB TENSES: A tense is the form of a verb that shows the time of an action or condition. The SIX Verb TensesEach tense has a basic and progressive form. --The progressive tenses are identified by their tense names PLUS the word progressive. Progressive tenses show that an action is or was happening for a period of time.
THE EMPHATIC FORMEXISTS ONLY FOR THE PRESENT AND PAST TENSES. PRESENT EMPHATIC Uses do does or did Jeff does play tennis more often than Jimmy.
PAST EMPHATIC Uses did Michael and Jake did play guitar in the band. PRACTICE: Identifying Verb Tenses
Page 426Practice 17.1A and 17.1B WRITING: Write an 8-10 sentence paragraph about a trip you would like to take or have taken. Use at least eight different verb forms or tenses in your
paragraph. Highlight the verb forms and tenses in your paragraph. THE FOUR PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS Every verb in the English language has four principal parts from which all of the tenses are formed: the present, the present participle, the past, and the past participle.
Present watch Present Participle watching Past Past Participle
watched (have) watched THE PRESENT: Used for basic forms of the present and future tenses, as well as for the emphatic forms or tenses. The future is formed with the helping verb
will. The present emphatic is formed with do or does. The past emphatic is formed with did. PRESENT PARTICIPLE: Is used with helping verbs for all of the progressive forms. Ex: I am walking. THE PAST:
Used to form the past tense. The past tense of a verb can change its spelling. Ex: I ran. THE PAST PARTICIPLE: Is used with helping verbs to create the perfect tenses. Ex: I have walked.
PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT TENSE. Page 42817.1C AND 17.1D WRITING APPLICATION: Write a mock radio broadcast about the weather. Use six verb tenses in your description. You will read these to a partner, who will list the verb tenses that you use. Can you trick them???
DARTS: I can use verb tenses correctly. I can use verb tenses to establish sequencing. I can use modifiers with verb tenses to establish time. PRESENT, PAST, AND FUTURE TENSE
The three forms of the present tense show present actions or conditions as well as various continuing actions or conditions. I ride. (Present) I am riding. (Present Progressive) I do ride. (Present Emphatic) HISTORICAL PRESENT The present tense may also be used to express historical
events. This is used in narration to make past actions or conditions sound more lively. People gather around a store window to watch the first television. People watching the television cannot believe that a picture can come through the air. USES OF THE PRESENT EMPHATIC TENSE
Emphasize a StatementJane does want to go to the store. Deny a Contrary AssertionNo, she does not want to walk downtown. Ask a QuestionDoes she enjoy shopping? Make a Negative SentenceJane does not want to stay all day.
CRITICAL PRESENT TENSE Most often used to discuss deceased authors and their literary achievements. O. Henry writes many stories with surprise endings. O. Henry is the author of several volumes of short stories. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE
Used to show a continuing action or condition of a long or short duration. Mark is practicing soccer every afternoon. (Long continuing action) He is trying to make the team. (short continuing action) He is hoping to make the first team someday. (continuing condition) PAST TENSE
The seven forms that express past tense show actions and conditions that began at some time in the past. THE MOST COMMON FORM OF PAST: Completed ActionJulian worked on his speech. Completed ConditionHe was an
interesting speaker. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ALWAYS expresses indefinite time. Use it to show actions or conditions continuing from the past to the present. We have come to the school dance. We have been excited all day.
THE PAST PERFECT TENSE Expresses an action that took place before another action. The coaches had analyzed the other teams game before they created their own game plans. FUTURE TENSE Expresses actions that have not yet
occurred. I will wait. I will have babysat. SEQUENCE OF TENSES When showing a sequence of events, do not shift tenses unnecessarily. Ursula will walk to school, and then she will take the bus home. *Sometimes, it is necessary to shift tenses, especially when a
sentence is complex or compound-complex. The tense of the main verb often determines the tense of the verb in the dependent clause. The form of the participle or infinitive often depends on the tense of the verb in the main clause. VERBS IN DEPENDENT CLAUSES The tense of a verb should follow logically from the tense of the main verb.
I will understand that Michael was late. (incorrect) I understand that Michael was late. (correct) TIME SEQUENCE WITH PARTICIPLES AND INFINITIVES The form of a participle or an infinitive should
logically relate to the verb in the same clause or sentence. Watching the race, they cheer. Having watched the race, they are cheering. MODIFIERS THAT HELP CLARIFY TENSE The time expressed by a verb can often be clarified by adverbs such as often, sometimes, always, or frequently and
phrases such as once in awhile, within a week, last week, or now and then. Use modifiers when they help clarify a tense. EX://Richard plays computer games every night. He practices once a day. EXERCISES TO PRACTICE: Page 450: 17.2H Page 451: 17.2J
WRITING: Create a twenty silly sentences that follow the following rules: 1. They all must be complex and compound-complex. 2. Each sentence must be the chain of the first. For example, the verb in the first sentence becomes the present participle in the second sentence and a perfect participle in the third sentence, and so on. Watching a scary movie, we screamed. Screaming loudly, we felt foolish. 3. Underline and identify all tenses of your verbs. DARTS:
1.I can identify and use the subjunctive mood to express wishes, doubts, and possibilities when speaking and writing. 2. I can use the indicative mood and imperative moods when writing. 1. THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
Use this mood 1) in clauses beginning with if or that to express an idea that is contrary to fact or 2) in clauses beginning with that to express a request, demand, or proposal. Examples: Dave wishes that the cafeteria were less noisy. (Expresses a wish that something could be done, but it has not been done) He wished that he were able to hear his friends. If she were interested, she would have said so.
EXPRESSING IDEAS CONTRARY TO FACT Some IF clauses do not take a subjunctive verb. If the idea expressed may be true, an indicative form is used. Examples: I said that if we won the game, Id buy everyones frozen yogurt. If I want to win, Ill have to practice hard.
(INDICATIVE Verbs make statements and ask questions.) Both of the sentences above are making statements. Therefore, they use the indicative form with a clause beginning with if. IMPERATIVE MOOD Used to give orders or directions. Be helpful. Sit down. AUXILIARY VERBS THAT EXPRESS
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD Could, Would, and Should can be used with a verb to express the subjunctive mood. If I could aim, Id play basketball. I he would leave the party, Id stay. If you should move, would you miss us? PRACTICE: Page 457:
17.3A and 17.3B TEST WARM UP Read Page 459 and answer questions 1-4. All the questions are on subjunctive mood. DART: I can use and understand complex active and passive
tenses in reading, writing, and speaking. VOICE: Voice or tense is the form of a verb that shows whether the subject is performing the action or is being acted upon. There are two voices: ACTIVE and PASSIVE.
ACTIVE VOICE: A verb is active if its subject performs its action. 1.The captain telephoned the team. 2.Bill developed twenty-five pictures of the ocean. 3.Telephone messages gathered on the desk while she was away. PASSIVE VOICE: A verb is passive if its action is performed upon the
subject. 1.The team was telephoned by the captain. 2.The messages were gathered into neat piles. PASSIVE VERB: A passive verb is always a verb phrase made from a form of be plus the past participle of a verb. The tense of the helping verb be determines the tense of the passive verb.
USING ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE: Writing that uses the active voice tends to be much more lively than writing that uses the passive voice. The active voice is usually more direct and economical. That is because active voice shows someone doing something. ACTIVE:
Natasha requested help. PASSIVE: Help was requested by Natasha. PASSIVE VOICE HAS TWO USES IN ENGLISH: 1. Use it when you want to emphasize the receiver of an action
rather than the performer of an action. Our team was awarded the championship. 2. Use it to point out the receiver of an action whenever the performer is not important or not easily identified. The door to the garage was opened, and I could see my dads new car. EXAMPLES OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE:
ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE: Page 463: 17.4B WRITING: Write a paragraph about a funny character. Your paragraph should have ten sentences. Five sentences should be in active voice. Five should be in passive voice. Label them with A or P to show which sentences are which.
QUIZ: TURN IN BEFORE YOU LEAVE TODAY This paragraph is in passive voice. Rewrite the paragraph using as much active voice as possible. The car was wrecked by Benji. A lot of alcohol had been drunk by him that night, and the tree was smashed into because the car was being driven crazily by Benji. The ambulance was driven by paramedics to the scene, and a police report was taken by Officer Jaramillo. Benji was loaded into the ambulance by the paramedics, but he was handcuffed by the police before he got in. At the hospital, Benjis blood was taken by the nurses, and his heart
rate was checked by a doctor. Once he was released by the doctor, he was taken by the police to jail.
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