video slide - Amphitheater Public Schools

video slide - Amphitheater Public Schools

Chapter 53 Community Ecology PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Overview: What Is a Community? A biological community Is an assemblage of populations of various species living close enough for potential interaction Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The various animals and plants surrounding this watering hole Are all members of a savanna community in southern Africa Figure 53.1 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 53.1: A communitys interactions include competition, predation, herbivory, symbiosis, and disease Populations are linked by interspecific interactions That affect the survival and reproduction of the species engaged in the interaction Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Interspecific interactions Can have differing effects on the populations involved Table 53.1 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Competition Interspecific competition Occurs when species compete for a particular resource that is in short supply Strong competition can lead to competitive exclusion The local elimination of one of the two competing species

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Competitive Exclusion Principle The competitive exclusion principle States that two species competing for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ecological Niches The ecological niche Is the total of an organisms use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The niche concept allows restatement of the

competitive exclusion principle Two species cannot coexist in a community if their niches are identical Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings However, ecologically similar species can coexist in a community If there are one or more significant difference in their niches EXPERIMENT Ecologist Joseph Connell studied two barnacle speciesBalanus balanoides and Chthamalus stellatus that have a stratified distribution on rocks along the coast of Scotland. RESULTS When Connell removed Balanus from the lower

strata, the Chthamalus population spread into that area. High tide Chthamalus High tide Chthamalus realized niche Balanus Chthamalus fundamental niche Balanus realized niche

Ocean Figure 53.2 Low tide In nature, Balanus fails to survive high on the rocks because it is unable to resist desiccation (drying out) during low tides. Its realized niche is therefore similar to its fundamental niche. In contrast, Chthamalus is usually concentrated on the upper strata of rocks. To determine the fundamental of niche of Chthamalus, Connell removed Balanus from the lower strata. Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ocean Low tide

CONCLUSION The spread of Chthamalus when Balanus was removed indicates that competitive exclusion makes the realized niche of Chthamalus much smaller than its fundamental niche. As a result of competition A species fundamental niche may be different from its realized niche Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Resource Partitioning Resource partitioning is the differentiation of niches That enables similar species to coexist in a community A. insolitus

usually perches on shady branches. A. ricordii A. distichus perches on fence posts and other sunny surfaces. A. insolitus A. alinigar A. christophei A. distichus A. cybotes A. etheridgei

Figure 53.3 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Character Displacement In character displacement There is a tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations of the same two species G. fortis G. fuliginosa Beak depth Percentages of individuals in each size class

Santa Mara, San Cristbal 40 Sympatric populations 20 0 Los Hermanos 40 G. fuliginosa, allopatric 20 0 Daphne

40 20 0 Figure 53.4 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings G. fortis, allopatric 8 10 12 Beak depth (mm) 14

16 Predation Predation refers to an interaction Where one species, the predator, kills and eats the other, the prey Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Feeding adaptations of predators include Claws, teeth, fangs, stingers, and poison Animals also display A great variety of defensive adaptations Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cryptic coloration, or camouflage

Makes prey difficult to spot Figure 53.5 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Aposematic coloration Warns predators to stay away from prey Figure 53.6 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In some cases, one prey species May gain significant protection by mimicking the appearance of another Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In Batesian mimicry

A palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model (b) Green parrot snake Figure 53.7a, b (a) Hawkmoth larva Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In Mllerian mimicry Two or more unpalatable species resemble each other (a) Cuckoo bee Figure 53.8a, b

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings (b) Yellow jacket Herbivory Herbivory, the process in which an herbivore eats parts of a plant Has led to the evolution of plant mechanical and chemical defenses and consequent adaptations by herbivores Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Parasitism In parasitism, one organism, the parasite Derives its nourishment from another organism, its host, which is harmed in the process

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Parasitism exerts substantial influence on populations And the structure of communities Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Disease The effects of disease on populations and communities Is similar to that of parasites Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pathogens, disease-causing agents Are typically bacteria, viruses, or protists

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mutualism Mutualistic symbiosis, or mutualism Is an interspecific interaction that benefits both species Figure 53.9 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Commensalism In commensalism One species benefits and the other is not affected Figure 53.10 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Commensal interactions have been difficult to document in nature Because any close association between species likely affects both species Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Interspecific Interactions and Adaptation Evidence for coevolution Which involves reciprocal genetic change by interacting populations, is scarce Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings However, generalized adaptation of organisms to other organisms in their environment Is a fundamental feature of life

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 53.2: Dominant and keystone species exert strong controls on community structure In general, a small number of species in a community Exert strong control on that communitys structure Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Species Diversity The species diversity of a community Is the variety of different kinds of organisms that make up the community Has two components

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Species richness Is the total number of different species in the community Relative abundance Is the proportion each species represents of the total individuals in the community Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Two different communities Can have the same species richness, but a different relative abundance A B

C D Figure 53.11 A: 25% Community 1 B: 25% C: 25% D: 25% A: 80% Community 2 B: 5%

C: 5% D: 10% Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A community with an even species abundance Is more diverse than one in which one or two species are abundant and the remainder rare Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Trophic Structure Trophic structure Is the feeding relationships between organisms in a community Is a key factor in community dynamics

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Food chains Link the trophic levels from producers to top carnivores Quaternary consumers Carnivore Carnivore Tertiary consumers Carnivore

Carnivore Secondary consumers Carnivore Carnivore Primary consumers Zooplankton Herbivore Primary producers Plant

Figure 53.12 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A terrestrial food chain Phytoplankton A marine food chain Food Webs A food web Humans Is a branching food chain with complex trophic

interactions Smaller toothed whales Baleen whales Crab-eater seals Birds Sperm whales Elephant seals

Leopard seals Fishes Squids Carnivorous plankton Copepods Euphausids (krill) Phytoplankton Figure 53.13

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Food webs can be simplified By isolating a portion of a community that interacts very little with the rest of the community Juvenile striped bass Sea nettle Fish larvae Figure 53.14 Fish eggs Zooplankton

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Limits on Food Chain Length Each food chain in a food web Is usually only a few links long There are two hypotheses That attempt to explain food chain length Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The energetic hypothesis suggests that the length of a food chain Is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The dynamic stability hypothesis Proposes that long food chains are less stable than short ones Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most of the available data Support the energetic hypothesis No. of species 5 No. of trophic links 4

6 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0

0 High (control) Medium Productivity Figure 53.15 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Low Number of trophic links Number of species 6

Species with a Large Impact Certain species have an especially large impact on the structure of entire communities Either because they are highly abundant or because they play a pivotal role in community dynamics Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dominant Species Dominant species Are those species in a community that are most abundant or have the highest biomass Exert powerful control over the occurrence and distribution of other species Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

One hypothesis suggests that dominant species Are most competitive in exploiting limited resources Another hypothesis for dominant species success Is that they are most successful at avoiding predators Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Keystone Species Keystone species Are not necessarily abundant in a community Exert strong control on a community by their ecological roles, or niches

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Field studies of sea stars Number of species present Exhibit their role as a keystone species in intertidal communities 20 With Pisaster (control) 15 10 Without Pisaster (experimental)

5 0 1963 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 (a) The sea star Pisaster ochraceous feeds preferentially on mussels but will consume other invertebrates. Figure 53.16a,b Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings (b) When Pisaster was removed from an intertidal zone, mussels eventually took over the rock face and eliminated most other invertebrates and algae. In a control area from which Pisaster was not removed, there was little change in species diversity.

Observation of sea otter populations and their predation Otter number (% max. count) 80 60 40 20 0 (a) Sea otter abundance 400 Grams per 0.25 m2 Shows the effect the

otters have on ocean communities 100 300 200 100 0 Number per 0.25 m2 (b) Sea urchin biomass 10 8 6

4 2 0 1972 1985 1989 1993 1997 Year Figure 53.17 Food chain before

killer whale involvement in chain Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings (c) Total kelp density Food chain after killer whales started preying on otters Ecosystem Engineers (Foundation Species) Some organisms exert their influence By causing physical changes in the environment that affect community structure Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Beaver dams

Can transform landscapes on a very large scale Figure 53.18 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Some foundation species act as facilitators That have positive effects on the survival and reproduction of some of the other species in the community Number of plant species 8 6 4

2 0 Figure 53.19 Salt marsh with Juncus (foreground) Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings With Juncus Without Juncus Conditions

Bottom-Up and Top-Down Controls The bottom-up model of community organization Proposes a unidirectional influence from lower to higher trophic levels In this case, the presence or absence of abiotic nutrients Determines community structure, including the abundance of primary producers Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The top-down model of community organization Proposes that control comes from the trophic level above

In this case, predators control herbivores Which in turn control primary producers Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Long-term experiment studies have shown That communities can shift periodically from bottom-up to top-down Percentage of herbaceous plant cover 100 75 50

25 0 0 100 Figure 53.20 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 200 Rainfall (mm) 300 400

Pollution Can affect community dynamics But through biomanipulation Polluted communities can be restored Polluted State Fish Restored State Abundant Rare Zooplankton Rare

Abundant Algae Abundant Rare Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 53.3: Disturbance influences species diversity and composition Decades ago, most ecologists favored the traditional view That communities are in a state of equilibrium Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

However, a recent emphasis on change has led to a nonequilibrium model Which describes communities as constantly changing after being buffeted by disturbances Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings What Is Disturbance? A disturbance Is an event that changes a community Removes organisms from a community Alters resource availability Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fire Is a significant disturbance in most terrestrial ecosystems

Is often a necessity in some communities Figure 53.21ac (a) Before a controlled burn. A prairie that has not burned for several years has a high proportion of detritus (dead grass). (b) During the burn. The detritus serves as fuel for fires. Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings (c) After the burn. Approximately one month after the controlled burn, virtually all of the biomass in this prairie is living.

The intermediate disturbance hypothesis Suggests that moderate levels of disturbance can foster higher species diversity than low levels of disturbance Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The large-scale fire in Yellowstone National Park in 1988 Demonstrated that communities can often respond very rapidly to a massive disturbance (a) Soon after fire. As this photo taken soon after the fire shows, the burn left a patchy landscape. Note the unburned trees in the distance. Figure 53.22a, b Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

(b) One year after fire. This photo of the same general area taken the following year indicates how rapidly the community began to recover. A variety of herbaceous plants, different from those in the former forest, cover the ground. Human Disturbance Humans Are the most widespread agents of disturbance Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human disturbance to communities Usually reduces species diversity Humans also prevent some naturally occurring disturbances

Which can be important to community structure Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ecological Succession Ecological succession Is the sequence of community and ecosystem changes after a disturbance Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Primary succession Occurs where no soil exists when succession begins Secondary succession Begins in an area where soil remains after a

disturbance Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Early-arriving species May facilitate the appearance of later species by making the environment more favorable May inhibit establishment of later species May tolerate later species but have no impact on their establishment Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Retreating glaciers Provide a valuable field-research opportunity on succession Canada

u ea at Pl 1899 1879 1949 1935 1879 l. Mc Br ide G

1941 l. G 1907 1948 1948 1931 1911 1900 1892

1879 0 5 Miles Ca se me nt Gl . 1912 l.

sG gg Ri 1940 Alaska l. rG ui M Grand Pacific Gl. 1913 1860

Reid Gl. Johns Hopkins Gl. 1879 Glacier Bay 1830 1780 1760 Pleasant Is. Figure 53.23 McBride glacier retreating

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 10 Succession on the moraines in Glacier Bay, Alaska Follows a predictable pattern of change in vegetation and soil characteristics (a) Pioneer stage, with fireweed dominant (b) Dryas stage 60 Soil nitrogen (g/m2) 50 40

30 20 10 0 Figure 53.24ad Pioneer Dryas Alder Spruce Successional stage (d) Nitrogen fixation by Dryas and alder increases the soil nitrogen content. Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings (c) Spruce stage Concept 53.4: Biogeographic factors affect

community diversity Two key factors correlated with a communitys species diversity Are its geographic location and its size Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Equatorial-Polar Gradients The two key factors in equatorial-polar gradients of species richness Are probably evolutionary history and climate Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Species richness generally declines along an equatorial-polar gradient And is especially great in the tropics

The greater age of tropical environments May account for the greater species richness Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Climate Is likely the primary cause of the latitudinal gradient in biodiversity Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The two main climatic factors correlated with biodiversity Are solar energy input and water availability 180 200 140

Vertebrate species richness (log scale) Tree species richness 160 100 120 100 50 80 60 40

20 0 100 (a) Trees 10 1 900 500 700 300 Actual evapotranspiration (mm/yr) 1,100 Figure 53.25a, b

Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings (b) Vertebrates 1,500 1,000 500 Potential evapotranspiration (mm/yr) 2,000 Area Effects The species-area curve quantifies the idea that All other factors being equal, the larger the geographic area of a community, the greater the number of species Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

A species-area curve of North American breeding birds Supports this idea Number of species (log scale) 1,000 100 10 1 1 10 100

103 Figure 53.26 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 104 105 106 Area (acres) 107 108

109 1010 Island Equilibrium Model Species richness on islands Depends on island size, distance from the mainland, immigration, and extinction Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The equilibrium model of island biogeography maintains that (b) Effect of island size. Large islands may ultimately have a larger equilibrium number of species than small islands because immigration rates tend to be higher and extinction rates lower on large islands.

Figure 53.27ac Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings E (fa xtin c ri sla tion nd ) Rate of immigration or extinction (s m Rate of immigration or extinction

ct io n Ex tin Rate of immigration or extinction (la rg Number of species on island n tio ra ig

d) m an isl ar Large island Im n n io t ) ) tio ra

ra nd nd ig ig la la m m is is m I l e al rg m

(la (s n tio ra ig (a) Immigration and extinction rates. The equilibrium number of species on an island represents a balance between the immigration of new species and the extinction of species already there. Small island e (n

m Number of species on island Im Im Equilibrium number Ex tin ct io Ex all n

tin e isl ct an is i la d) nd on ) Species richness on an ecological island levels off at some dynamic equilibrium point Im m ig

(fa ra ri ti sl an on d) Far island n io ) ct it n land Ex r i s ea (n

Near island Number of species on island (c) Effect of distance from mainland. Near islands tend to have larger equilibrium numbers of species than far islands because immigration rates to near islands are higher and extinction rates lower. Studies of species richness on the Galpagos Islands Support the prediction that species richness increases with island size FIELD STUDY Ecologists Robert MacArthur and E. O. Wilson studied the number of plant species on the Galpagos Islands, which vary greatly in size, in relation to the area of each island.

RESULTS 400 Number of plant species (log scale) 200 100 50 25 10 5 0 0.1 10

1 100 1,000 Area of island (mi2) (log scale) Figure 53.28 CONCLUSION The results of the study showed that plant species richness increased with island size, supporting the species-area theory. Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Concept 53.5: Contrasting views of community structure are the subject of continuing debate Two different views on community structure Emerged among ecologists in the 1920s and 1930s Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Integrated and Individualistic Hypotheses The integrated hypothesis of community structure Describes a community as an assemblage of closely linked species, locked into association by mandatory biotic interactions Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The individualistic hypothesis of community

structure Proposes that communities are loosely organized associations of independently distributed species with the same abiotic requirements Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The integrated hypothesis Population densities of individual species Predicts that the presence or absence of particular species depends on the presence or absence of other species

Environmental gradient (such as temperature or moisture) Figure 53.29a (a) Integrated hypothesis. Communities are discrete groupings of particular species that are closely interdependent and nearly always occur together. Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The individualistic hypothesis Population densities of individual species

Predicts that each species is distributed according to its tolerance ranges for abiotic factors Environmental gradient (such as temperature or moisture) Figure 53.29b (b) Individualistic hypothesis. Species are independently distributed along gradients and a community is simply the assemblage of species that occupy the same area because of similar abiotic needs. Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In most actual cases the composition of

communities Number of plants per hectare Seems to change continuously, with each species more or less independently distributed 600 400 200 0 Wet Figure 53.29c Moisture gradient

Dry (c) Trees in the Santa Catalina Mountains. The distribution of tree species at one elevation in the Santa Catalina Mountains of Arizona supports the individualistic hypothesis. Each tree species has an independent distribution along the gradient, apparently conforming to its tolerance for moisture, and the species that live together at any point along the gradient have similar physical requirements. Because the vegetation changes continuously along the gradient, it is impossible to delimit sharp boundaries for the communities. Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rivet and Redundancy Models The rivet model of communities Suggests that all species in a community are linked together in a tight web of interactions Also states that the loss of even a single species has strong repercussions for the

community Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The redundancy model of communities Proposes that if a species is lost from a community, other species will fill the gap Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings It is important to keep in mind that community hypotheses and models Represent extremes, and that most communities probably lie somewhere in the middle Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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