Viruses CLS 212: Medical Microbiology History Through the 1800s, many scientists discovered that something smaller than bacteria could cause disease and they called it virion (Latin word- poison). In the 1930s, after the invention of electron microscopes, viruses finally could be seen. The first photographs of viruses were obtained in 1940.
Introduction The study of viruses is called: Virology. Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens that can infect all types of living organisms. Viruses that infect bacteria are called: Bacteriophages. Many human diseases are caused by viruses. Some viruses oncogenic viruses can even cause cancers e.g. leukemia, lymphoma.. Virus particles can only be seen by an electron microscope. Most viruses range in sizes from 10-300 nanometers.
Structure of Viruses Structure of Viruses 1) Genome: The nucleic acid material containing the genetic information and its either DNA or RNA. 2) Capsid: A protein structure designed to protect the genome. It is composed of many small protein units called capsomeres. A complete virus particle, known as a virion is composed of a
third structure: 3) Envelope: A lipid bilayer membrane found in some viruses. It is derived from the host cell membrane or nuclear membrane and never made by the viruses themselves. I- Virus Genome The genetic material of viruses can be DNA or RNA, never both. DNA or RNA may be single stranded (ss) or double stranded (ds). Viruses are the only from of live that have
genes in RNA molecules. Viruses are classified into 4 types according to the type of nucleic acid they have: ssDNA viruses, ssRNA viruses, ds DNA viruses, and ds RNA viruses. The most common forms of viral genomes found in nature are ssRNA then dsDNA. Contains several genes that are responsible for the production of non-structural protein (enzymes and regulatory proteins) and structural proteins (proteins incorporated in the
structure of the progeny virus) II. Capsid The protein coat inclosing the genome. The capsid is designed to give shape, size, and protect the virus nucleic acid from environmental damage. Capsid and Nucleic Acid are called neocleocapsid or naked virus. Capsids of viruses have different shapes and symmetry. They can be: 1. Helical: coiled tubes.
2. Polyhedral: many sided. 3. Bullet shaped. 4. Spherical. 5. Complex: combination of shapes. Bullet-shaped Virus Helical Virus Polyhedral Virus
Spherical Virus III. Envelope Lipid containing membrane surrounding the nucleocapsid used in defining a viral family The virus that is not enveloped is referred to as a naked virus The envelope is derived from host cell membrane however, the cellular membrane proteins are replaced by virus-specific proteins Classification of Viruses
Viruses are classified by the following characteristics: 1. Type of genetic material (DNA or RNA). 2. Shape of capsid. 3. Number of capsomeres. 4. Size of capsid. 5. Presence or absence of an envelope. 6. Type of host that it infects. 7. Type of disease that it produces. 8. Target cells. 9. Immunologic or antigenic properties.
Replication of Viruses The ability of viruses to infect or invade the target cell and multiply inside it and subsequent escape outside the cell. 1- Recognition A. Early phase 2- Attachment 3- Penetration 4- Uncoating
The most important step 5- Biochemical synthesis B. Eclipse Phase (late) 6- Assembly of virus 7- Release Replication of Viruses: the early phase
1- Recognition: The virus should recognize the cell to be able to replicate within it. Which involves interaction between virial capsid proteins and receptors (protein or polysaccharide molecules) on the host cell membrane. 2- Attachment (adsorption): Attachment of the virus to the receptor on the host cell. 3- Penetration: The entire virus enters the host cell. This process is temperature dependant (37C). - Naked viruses: penetrate by endocytosis.
- Enveloped viruses: penetrate by fusion to plasma membrane. 4- Uncoating: Removal of the coat (capsid) by the host cell proteolytic enzymes and the nucleic acid will be exposed. Penetration Step Replication of Viruses: the Eclipse phase 5- Biochemical synthesis: (formation of NA + capsid) A- Early transcription followed by early translation for the production of viral mRNAs and nonstructural proteins.
B- Late transcription followed by late translation for the production of viral mRNAs and structural proteins. C- Nucleic acid replication to produce copies of the original viral genome. 6- Assembly (maturation): The viral parts are assembled to create complete virions inside the host cell. 7- Release: Escape of the complete virions from the host cell. Naked viruses Cell lysis (cell death).
Enveloped viruses Budding. Release of Enveloped Virus Replication of Picornavirus Non enveloped virus HIV Replication
Cycle Enveloped virus Cell Response to Viral Infection The range of structural and biochemical effects that viruses have on the host cell is extensive. These are called cytopathic effects. 1- Lytic infection: Cell dies at the end of virus replicative cycle (occurs in most RNA viruses). 2- Persistent infection: Cell remains alive and continues to produce
progeny virions (e.g. measles virus, papilloma viruses, and other slow virus infections). 3- Latent infections: cell remains alive but the virus cannot replicate, however, can be reactivated (e.g. Herpes viruses). 4-Transforming infection: the infected cell is transformed by the virus and the cell: a- continues to produce progeny virions as in most RNA oncogenic viruses OR b- do not produce progeny virions as in most DNA oncogenic viruses. DNA viruses
Non enveloped Enveloped Parvovirus (ss) Adenovirus (ds) Human papilloma virus (ds): e.g. warts Herpes virinae: HSV1+ HSV2
VZV Herpes virinae: CMV Herpes virinae: EBV Hepatitis B virus (HBV) (ds) Herpes Virus All herpes viruses share a characteristic ability to remain latent within the body over long periods. -Herpes Virinae
Herpes Simplex Virus1: fever Blisters Herpes Simplex Virus2: genital herpes Both are infection in the skin or mucus membranes of the mouth, lips or genitalia. The primary infection: a lesion called Blister which is watery and cause itching. When the blister is healed the virus shed to the nerve to hide from the immune system. latent infection: Recurrent infection can happen when there is a decrease in the immunity. Transmission: transmitted through close contact with infected person who is
shedding virus from the skin -Herpes Virinae Cytomegalovirus (CMV) It is called CMV because the infected cells are greatly enlarged and multinucleated. Initial infection commonly occurs during childhood. The infection in children is usually asymptomatic; these viruses continue to shed the virus for months in virtually all body fluids (tears, urine, and saliva) without causing detectable damage or clinical illness.
Some of them develop an infectious mononucleosis/glandular fever-like syndrome (Identical to that caused by EBV), with prolonged fever, and a mild hepatitis. A sore throat is common. After infection, the virus remains latent in the body for the rest of the person's life. Overt disease rarely occurs unless immunity is suppressed either by drugs, infection or old-age. Transmission: occurs from person to person through bodily fluids. -Herpes Virinae Epstein-Barr Virus
Cause: infectious mononucleosis (kissing disease) Symptoms: fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. Sometimes, a swollen spleen or liver involvement may develop. infectious mononucleosis is almost never fatal.
Although symptoms of infectious mononucleosis usually resolve in 1 to 2 months, EBV remains dormant or latent in a few cells in the throat and blood for the rest of the person's life. Periodically, the virus can reactivate and is commonly found in the saliva of infected persons. This reactivtion usually occurs without symptoms of illness. Epstein-barr can reoccur at any time especially after illness or stress. Transmission: by intimate contact with saliva that contains the virus. RNA viruses Non enveloped
Enveloped Hepatitis E and A (ss) Hepatitis C (ds): HCV Retrovirus (ss): HIV Orthomyxoviridae: Inflenza virus Influenza virus
There are 3 types of inflenza viruses: Influenzavirus A: causes of all flu pandemics and infect humans, other mammals and birds Influenzavirus B: infect humans and seals Influenzavirus C: infect humans and pigs Inflenza A: the most virulent human pathogens among the three influenza types and causes the most severe disease. There are several types of protein from(Hemagglutinin) H1 to H5 and (Neureminidase) N1 to N5 giving several kind of infections
that transmit between animals and human, such as bird flu, swine flu and many others. Prevention of Viral Infections: Vaccines Vaccines are available to prevent over 13 viral infections of humans. Types of Vaccines 1. Live vaccines: contain weakened forms of the virus, which do not cause the disease but triggers immunity. Such viruses are called attenuated. Live vaccines can be dangerous when given to people with a weak immunity (immuncompromised). E.g.
MMR vaccine. 2. Killed vaccines: contain inactivated viruses. E.g. influenza vaccine. 3. Subunit vaccines: produced by biotechnology and genetic engineering techniques. These vaccines use only the capsid proteins of the virus. E.g. Hepatitis B vaccine.
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