Volcanoes and Igneous Activity Earth - Chapter 4

Volcanoes and Igneous Activity Earth - Chapter 4

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 6 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning.

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12e Glaciers, Deserts, and Wind Chapter 6 Glaciers: a part of two basic cycles in the Earth system Glaciers are a part of both the hydrologic

cycle and rock cycle Glacier a thick mass of ice that forms over land from the compaction and recrystallization of snow and shows evidence of past or present flow Glaciers: a part of two basic cycles in the Earth system

Types of glaciers Valley, or alpine glaciers form in mountainous areas Ice sheets, or continental glaciers Large scale e.g., Over Greenland and Antarctica Other types

Ice caps and piedmont glaciers Currently ice sheets cover Greenland and Antarctica Figure 6.2

Glaciers: a part of two basic cycles in the Earth system Movement of glacial ice Types of glacial movements Plastic flow Slipping along the ground Zone of fracture

Uppermost 50 meters Crevasses form in brittle ice Glaciers: a part of two basic cycles in the Earth system Movement of glacial ice Zone of accumulation the area where a glacier forms

Zone of wastage the area where there is a net loss due to melting The glacial budget Figure 6.7

Glaciers: a part of two basic cycles in the Earth system Glaciers erode by Plucking lifting of rock blocks Abrasion Rock flour (pulverized rock) Striations (grooves in the bedrock)

Glaciers: a part of two basic cycles in the Earth system Landforms created by glacial erosion

Glacial trough Hanging valley Cirque Arte Horn Fiord

Erosional landforms created by alpine glaciers Figure 6.10 C The Matterhorn in the Swiss Alps

Figure 6.12 Glaciers: a part of two basic cycles in the Earth system Glacial deposits Glacial drift All sediments of glacial origin

Types of glacial drift Till material that is deposited directly by ice Stratified drift sediment deposited by meltwater Glacial till is typically unstratified and unsorted

Figure 6.13 Close-up view of the boulder in the previous slide Glaciers: a part of two basic cycles in the Earth system Glacial deposits

Depositional features Moraines layers or ridges of till Types of moraines Lateral Medial End Ground

Glaciers: a part of two basic cycles in the Earth system Glacial deposits Depositional features

Outwash plain, or valley train Kettles Drumlins Eskers Kames

Glacial depositional features Figure 6.18 Kettle lakes Figure 6.18

Glaciers: a part of two basic cycles in the Earth system Glaciers of the past Ice Age Began 2 to 3 million years ago Division of geological time is called the Pleistocene epoch

Ice covered 30% of Earths land area Maximum extent of ice during the Ice Age Figure 6.22 Glaciers: a part of two basic

cycles in the Earth system Glaciers of the past Indirect effects of Ice Age glaciers

Migration of animals and plants Rebounding upward of the crust Worldwide change in sea level Climatic changes Glaciers: a part of two basic cycles in the Earth system Causes of glaciation

Successful theory must account for Cooling of Earth, as well as Short-term climatic changes Proposed possible causes Plate tectonics Continents were arranged differently Changes in oceanic circulation

Glaciers: a part of two basic cycles in the Earth system Causes of glaciation Proposed possible causes Variations in Earths orbit Milankovitch hypothesis Shape (eccentricity) of Earths orbit varies

Angle of Earths axis (obliquity) changes Axis wobbles (precession) Changes in climate over the past several hundred thousand years are closely associated with variations in Earths orbit Deserts Geologic processes in arid climates

Weathering Not as effective as in humid regions Mechanical weathering forms unaltered rock and mineral fragments Some chemical weathering does occur Clay forms Thin soil forms

Deserts Geologic processes in arid climates Role of water in arid climates Streams are dry most of the time Desert streams are said to be ephemeral Flow only during periods of rainfall Different names are used for desert streams including wash, arroyo, wadi, donga, and nullah

Deserts Geologic processes in arid climates Role of water in arid climates Desert rainfall Rain often occurs as heavy showers Causes flash floods Poorly integrated drainage

Most erosional work in a desert is done by running water A dry stream channel in the desert Figure 6.28 A

The same stream channel following heavy rainfall Figure 6.28 B Deserts Basin and Range: the evolution of a desert landscape

Uplifted crustal blocks Interior drainage into basins produces Alluvial fans and bajadas Playas and playa lakes Deserts Basin and Range: the evolution of a desert landscape

Erosion of mountain mass causes local relief to continually diminish Eventually mountains are reduced to a few large bedrock knobs called inselbergs projecting above a sediment-filled basin Landscape evolution in a mountainous desert early

Figure 6.29 A Landscape evolution in a mountainous desert middle Figure 6.29 B

Landscape evolution in a mountainous desert late Figure 6.29 C Deserts Wind erosion Deflation

Lifting of loose material Produces Blowouts Desert pavement Abrasion Formation of

desert pavement Figure 6.34 Deserts Types of wind deposits Loess Deposits of windblown silt

Extensive blanket deposits Primary sources are deserts and glacial stratified drift Deserts Types of wind deposits Sand dunes Mounds and ridges of sand formed from the winds

bed load Characteristic features Slip face the leeward slope of the dune Cross beds sloping layers of sand in the dune Formation of sand dunes Figure 6.37

Deserts Types of wind deposits Sand dunes Types of sand dunes Barchan dunes Transverse dunes Longitudinal dunes

Parabolic dunes Star dunes Sand dune types Figure 6.38 Sand dunes in the

western United States End of Chapter 6

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