Week 29: March 21-23, 2016 Cold War (Ch. 18, 37-40) Why are we here this week? Students will review the Cold War (Ch. 18, plus 37-40) and complete the final quiz from Unit III: Post-WW II & early Cold War. ADVANCED students will continue to analyze and formulate plans for their Cold War DBQ essay, while Academic students will continue Unit III study guide work (inspection for progress on Wednesday, up to -5 for incomplete work). Post-WW II & early Cold War Essential terminology
UN Super Powers Iron Curtain satellite nations 1) Find your partner who has the other half of your word(s) containment Truman and his Doctrine 2) Locate your word in the textbook(s) & confirm page(s) George C. Marshall and his Plan 3) ANTICIPATE 5 KEY WORDS (not a sentence) related to Post-WW II Germany your concept(s) NATO What words might you expect to see?
Warsaw Pact China and its Civil War What images might appear? Korean War blacklist 4) Prepare to SHARE your concept(s) through a live action activity (PowerPoint analysis & critique) HUAC & McCarthyism brinkmanship, H-bomb, and MAD CIA Nikita Khrushchev Space Race U-2 incident JFK and the Cuban Missile Crisis
United Nations Americans, p. ; Alive!, p. 1st word (hardest clue) 2nd word (still challenging) 3rd (becoming obvious) 4th (second easiest clue) 5th (dead give away clue) Your INITIALS please Post-WW II & Cold War Terms 5 Words
by Period 5 (2014-15) Term or Phrase Americans, p. ; Alive!, p. 2nd 3rd 4th (easy) 5th
(obvious) (challenging) (clear) Your INITIALS United Nations Americans, p. 603; Alive!, p. 481 1945 Post-Pearl Harbor 50 nations UDHR
peacekeeping United Nations Americans, p. 603; Alive!, p. 481 United Nations (UN) was the international peacekeeping organization to promote peace and economic development. 1945 Post-Pearl Harbor 50 nations originally, 193 of 195-6 belong today UDHR: 4 Essential Freedomsspeech & expression, worship, from fear &
want peacekeeping Super Powers Americans, p. 602-603; 607; Alive!, p. 494 control United States democracy Soviet Union (USSR) communism Super Powers Americans, p. 602-603; 607 Alive!, p. 494 US & USSR
democracy & capitalism Cold War = political hostility that versus communism existed between the Soviet bloc countries and the US-led Western hegemonyinfluence powers from 1945 to 1990. It was conflict between the Soviet global competition: space aUnion and the U.S. without weapons being fired. race, military (nukes!), allied nations control
Iron Curtain Americans, p. 609; Alive!, p.496 barrier USSR Churchill Europe communism TD,AD Iron Curtain Americans, p. 605; Alive! 496-97 barrier in Europe communist East capitalist & democratic
West Former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill Berlin Wall marks formal division Iron curtain was a term first used by Winston Churchill to describe the line that separates communism from democracy. satellite nations
Americans, p. 605 ; Alive!, p. 505 secondary backup motherland USSR communism satellite nations Americans, p.605; Alive!, p. 505 communism Eastern Europe USSR (Stalin) Iron Curtain
containment Satellite Nations Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Poland. Stalin took control and forced communist rule. containment Americans, p. 605;737 ; Alive!, p. 494; 497, 508, 511
isolation restriction anti-expansion Iron Curtain communism ER, SA containment Americans, p. 605;737 ; Alive!, p. 494; 497, 508, 511 restriction of Containment blocks communism other countries efforts spread its influence
anti-expansion toof their type of government. Iron Curtain US Diplomat in USSR George Kennan Implemented by President Harry S. Truman Truman and his Doctrine Americans, p. 606; Alive!, p. 498 prevention communism
Europe aid president LM, GJ Truman and his Doctrine Americans, p. 606; Alive!, p. 498 & 501 military & economic aid presidents policy
Turkey & Greece ($400 mil.) containment of communism pro-democracy Truman Doctrine Economic and military aid to nations trying to avoid the threat of the spread of communism. George Marshall & his Plan Americans, p. 606; Alive!, p. 499 opposition reconstruction general
aid anti-communism JW, TU George Marshall & his Plan Americans, p. 606; Alive!, p. 468; 499-500 Funds to rebuild Post-WW II Europe European Recovery Act hope & stability Pro-democracy (anti-communism) Secretary of State, WW II General
Marshall Plan Economic aid provided by the U.S. to help rebuild nations after the war & contain communism (1947). Provided help from poverty, chaos, and desperation. Post-WW II Germany Americans, p. 607; 677; Alive!, p. 482; 504
communism aftermath segregation East vs. West Berlin Wall BS, GW Post-WW II Germany Americans, p. 607; 677; Alive!, p. 504 aftermath = East (communist) split from West (free) Allied occupation zones Berlin Blockade by
USSR (June 1948) Berlin Airlift (June 1948-May 1949) Berlin Wall (19611989) Reunified into one Germany (1990) Berlin Airlift Berlin divided between Allies and the Soviets. Americans airlifted food and supplies until Stalin got rid of the blockade. NATO Americans, p. 608; Alive!, p.505
alliance treaty collective security Warsaw Pact defense AE, BU NATO Americans, p. 608; 624; Alive!, p.505 defensive alliance collective security against possible Soviet attack signed by 12 democratic nations (1949) Ended isolationism for US
(28 members today) By 1955500, 000 troops, plus thousands of planes, tanks, etc. in Europe Countered by Warsaw Pact North Atlantic Treaty Organization Military support to all members if attacked. Started for the fear of Soviet aggression. Warsaw Pact
Americans, p. 624 ; Alive!, p. 505 NATO 7 countries rearmament communism alliance AK, EN Warsaw Pact Americans, p. 624; Alive!, p. 505 communist alliance (1955) security agreement united against NATO West Germany rearmed &
joined NATO USSR, plus 7 Eastern Warsaw Pact-A European countries pact between the Soviet Union Dissolved in 1991collapse and their of the Soviet Union satellite countries for military purposes Chinas Civil War
Americans, p. 610 ; Alive!, p. 515 Nationalists Taiwan communism revolt Mao Zedong JP, EC Chinas Civil War Americans, p. 609-610 ; Alive!, p. 507-508 China experienced a revolution NationalistsChiang-Kai Shek (center) supported
by US CommunistsMao Zedong (right) & Red Army supported by the Soviets Peoples Republic of China (communists win in 1949) Taiwan (Republic of China) democratic/capitalist Chiang Kai-Shek was a Nationalist ruled in southern and eastern
China. Got aid from the U.S. Moved to Taiwan. Mao Zedong was the communist leader of Northern China. Financial aid from the Soviets. Peoples Republic of China. Korean War Americans, p. 611 ; Alive!, p. 508-509 DMZ peninsula communism North
South NG, KB Korean War Americans, p. 609-615; Alive!, p. 508-509 MacArthur American Communists tried to General troops led by MacArthur reunify peninsula (June launched a counterattack taking back the 38 parallel. MacArthur 25, 1950) wanted a war against China and Truman disagreed. He was fired. United Nations intervenes (90%
American forces) stalemate results in demilitarized zone (to present) truce line (38th parallel) th Homework: STUDY for Post-WW II & Cold War QUIZ (W/3/23/16) DBQ analysis (AF+) or Unit III study guide check Wednesday Monday, March 21, 2016 I. Post-WW II & early Cold War: THINK, PAIR, SHARE! Find partner(s) Review notes and READ pages in textbooks Prepare to SHARE thoughts/reactions on 5 words PowerPoint
EGGSPERT II. Cold War DBQ OR Unit III Study Guide Individual OR Collaborative Work OPPORTUNITY Pretty Much the Cold War http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hU_8OLBK0ic https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=wVqziNV7dGY https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=y9HjvHZfCUI blacklist
Americans, p. 618; Alive!, p.521 500 fear communists Hollywood tarnished CP blacklist Americans, p. 618; Alive!, p.521 500 actors, writers, producers, & directors suspected communists & communist
sympathizers fear & paranoia Hollywood Ten tarnished reputations lost job opportunities Blacklist It happened when 500 people in the movie industry were suspected of being under communist influence. They werent allowed to work. Hollywood Ten were witnesses called to testify, but they refused to cooperate regarding possible communist influence in the movie industry. Those witnesses were put in prison.
HUAC & McCarthyism Americans, p. 620-621 ; Alive!, p. 522 blacklist infiltration anti-communism loyalty oaths Hollywood 10 RK, ST HUAC & McCarthyism Americans, p.620; Alive!, p. 522 unsubstantiated attacks McCarthyism-People who were suspected anti-communist investigations
of being communists although there was suspected communist little or no evidence to support claims. House Un-American Activities Committee sympathizers (HUAC) a committee that investigated communism in the movie industry. infiltration propaganda Senator Joseph McCarthy (RWisconsin) House Un-American Activities Committee Congressional hearings loyalty oaths Produced flimsy evidence
unconstitutional brinkmanship Americans, p. 623 ; Alive!, p. 515 world destruction weapons edge all-out-war PS, JG Brinkmanship, H-Bomb, MAD Americans, p. 623 ; Alive!, p. 515 push to the edge
all-out-war powerful thermonuclear weapons for US (1952) & USSR (1953) Hydrogen bomb = 1 million tons of TNT67 times the power of A-bomb dropped on Hiroshima Mutually Assured Destruction world destruction threatened air raid drills & fallout shelters
Brinkmanship when a country threatens another country with massive military aggression. Going to the brink of war H-Bomb was more powerful than the atomic bomb. Race with the soviets to see who could develop the H-bomb first. By 1953 both had the bomb. By 1963 a hot line linked the White House to the Kremlin so that communication in a crisis could be made easier.
CIA Americans, p. 623 ; Alive!, p. 498; 511 Investigation agents secretive Spies murder JM, ZA CIA Americans, p. 623-624; 626; 674 Alive!, p. 498; 511-513 Central Intelligence Agency Formed under Trumans National Security Act
(1947) international organization covert (spy) operations anti-USSR (pro-US interests) overthrow unfriendly or leftist (communist) governments Iran, Guatemala, Dominican Republic secret cameras, spy planes (U-2), satellite technology Eisenhower relied heavily on reportsauthorized training of Cuban exiles (1960) Kennedy authorized Bay of Pigs invasion (April 17, 1961) 1,300-1,500 exiles attacked in a botched effort (ineffective airstrikes & strategies)
Cuba under Fidel Castro had 25,000 soldiers and Soviet tanks and jets embarrassing & costly episode ($53 million ransom in food & medical supplies for release of commandos) Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) gathered information about the enemies of the U.S. CIA gave millions of dollars to the Shah of Iran to return to his country so that the Soviets would not gain control of the oil fields. The Shah returned and gave control of fields to western
companies. Nikita Krushchev Americans, p. ; Alive!, p. 503 2nd 3rd 4th Shoe 5th
Chairman De-Stalinization U-2 TDD Nikita Khruschev Americans, p.626; Alive!, p. 630;632-633 Soviet leader (Premier) from 1958 to 1964 Responsible for the partial deStalinization of the USSR (denounced
Stalin's dictatorial rule & cult of personality) Helped make progress in early Soviet space program & liberalized Soviet domestic policy Nikita Khruschev Leader of the soviet Union who believed that communism and democracy could coexist. Space Race Americans, p. 626; Alive!, p. 629
October 4, 1957 Flopnik Soviet technology Neil Armstrong Sputnik DF, JY Space Race Americans, p. 626 ; Alive!, p. 629 competition for international prestige (USSR vs. USA) Sputnik (October 4, 1957) was 1st artificial satellite US had flopnik & kaputnik at first
1st satellite success on January 31, 1958 NASA: National Aeronautics & Space Administration (1958-Eisenhower) 1st cosmonaut in space (April 12, 1961) was Yuri Gagarin Alan Sheppard was first US astronaut in space (May 5, 1961-Freedom 7) Neil Armstrong was 1st man on the moon (July 20, 1969) Space Race worlds first satellite was sent into
space by the Soviets. A year later the U.S. launched its first satellite. U-2 incident Americans, p. 626-627 ; Alive!, p. air shot spy Francis Gary Powers plane
U-2 incident Americans, p. 627; Alive!, p. 502-502;511 US spy plane Soviets shoot it down (May 1, 1960) Francis Gary Powers (US pilot) captured in Soviet territory Nikita Khruschev (USSR) demanded US apology Eisenhower refused US-USSR summit cancelled great tension between the superpowers
U-2 American spy plane shot down in Soviet territory. Caused more tension between Soviet and U.S. JFK & the Cuban Missile Crisis Americans, p. 674; Alive!, p. 632 quarantine USSR
Kennedy spyplane nukes KG, JFK & the Cuban Missile Crisis Americans, p.674-676; Alive!, p. 632-633 Soviets built missile launch sites on Cuba (1962) US president Kennedy calls for quarantine (blockade) of island Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev sent more ships to Cuba
Grave nuclear danger for 14 days in October 1962 JFK relied on 12 most trusted advisors (ExCom = Executive Committee for National Security) Nikita Khruschev blinked and agreed to remove missiles (US pledged NOT to invade Cuba) Cuban Missile Crisis US-Soviet confrontation of missile launch sites discovered by the US in communist Cuba in 1962. It was the closest the Cold War ever came to nuclear war.
Flow of History Charts #138-139-140 http:// flowofhistory.com/readings-flowchart s/the-world-since-1945/the-post-warworld-1945-60/fc138 READ (essays), ANALYZE, annotate, and ANSWER ?s up to 5 pts EACH http:// flowofhistory.com/readings-flowcharts/t he-world-since-1945/the-post-war-world -1945-60/fc139
http://flowofhistory.com/readings-flowc harts/the-world-since-1945/the-post-wa Advanced 9th Grade US History Document-Based Question Early Cold War Question: Some historians argue that the United States exaggerated the threat of communism, while others argue that American containment prevented a global communist revolution. Utilize the documents below to defend either of these two arguments. Requirements: Demonstrate knowledge acquired in class, through homework and from outside sources. Use as many of the documents included with this DBQ as you can. Write clearly and use proper language. Make sure your thesis is clear. Use historical examples to support your generalizations.
Your response should fully address the prompt and support the thesis. READ and ANALYZE the following documents in search of the following: 1) message: What does this source indicate about the nature of the Cold War? Does the CONTENT reveal that the U.S. acted appropriately or inappropriately? Does the CONTENT show that the U.S.S.R. was a real threat or exaggerated threat? 2) usage: How can you use this documents message(s) to show that the U.S. acted appropriately or inappropriately during the Cold War? What message(s) support you OPINION that the U.S. needed to stop a global communist takeover OR that it overreacted to the Soviet Union? Document A Franklin Delano Roosevelt to Ambassador to USSR, William C. Bullitt 1943 Who are the people involved? William C. Bullitt, "How We Won the War and Lost the Peace," Life,
August 30, 1958, p. 94. What kind of communication is this & WHEN did it occur? Setting the stage for the debates over Soviet intentions at the Yalta Conference in 1945, William C. Bullitt, a former ambassador to the USSR and to France, submitted a memorandum to Roosevelt in August 1943 in which he suggested obtaining Stalin's pledge for a renunciation of conquest in Europe and recommended a military advance from the south through Eastern and Central Europe. FDR, who felt he could "handle" Stalin, responded: What historical concepts & vocabulary words must I know or research in order to UNDERSTAND this document? I just have a hunch that Stalin...doesn't want anything but security for his country, and I think that if I give him everything I possibly can and ask nothing from him in return, noblesse oblige, he wouldn't try to annex anything and will work with us for a world of democracy and peace. How can you use this document to respond to the DBQ question? Does it show the view that America acted appropriately and prevented a communist takeover? Does it show that America overreacted in the face of the communist threat?
Can it be used by both sides of the argument? EXPLAIN Document B Henry Luce, The American Century, 1941 "The American Century" by Henry R. Luce. Life magazine, Feb. 17, 1941. 1941 Time, Inc. Henry R. Luce was the founder and publisher of the magazines Time, Life, Fortune, and later Sports Illustrated. "The American Century" appeared in Life magazine just before the bombing of Pearl Harbor and America's official entry into World War II. It's most famous passages presage the internationalism of the post-war period. In the field of national policy, the fundamental trouble with America has been, and is, that whereas their nation became in the 20th Century the most powerful and the most vital nation in the world, nevertheless Americans were unable to accommodate themselves spiritually and practically to that fact. Hence they have failed to play their part as a world powera failure which has had disastrous consequences for themselves and for all mankind. And the cue is this: to accept wholeheartedly our duty and our opportunity
as the most powerful and vital nation in the world and in consequence to exert upon the world the full impact of our influence, for such purposes as we see fit and by such means as we see fit As America enters dynamically upon the world scene, we need most of all to seek and to bring forth a vision of America as a world power which is authentically American and which can inspire us to live and work and fight with vigor and enthusiasm But all this is not enough. All this will fail and none of it will happen unless our vision of America as a world power includes a passionate devotion to great American ideals. We have some things in this country which are infinitely precious and especially Americana love of freedom, a feeling for the equality of opportunity, a tradition of self-reliance and independence and also of co-operation. In addition to ideals and notions which are especially American, we are the inheritors of all the great principles of Western civilization above all Justice, the love of Truth, the ideal of CharityIt now becomes our time to be the powerhouse from which the ideals spread throughout the world and do their mysterious work of lifting the life of mankind from the level of the beasts to what the Psalmist called a little lower than the angels. Document C Winston S. Churchill, The Iron Curtain Speech, Fulton, Missouri 1945
From the Congressional Record, 79th Cong., 2nd sess., 1945-46, 92: A1145-47 Winston S. Churchill was no longer British Prime Minister on March 5, 1946, when he made his frank " iron curtain" speech in Fulton, Missouri. While attracted to his candid anti-Soviet language, some critics pointed out that in condemning Russia for its influence in Eastern Europe, Churchill ignored British predominance in Greece and the empire. For some observers, Truman's presence on the platform signified American endorsement of Churchill's remarks. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are
subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow. . . . If now the Soviet Government tries, by separate action, to build up a pro-Communist Germany in their areas, this will cause new serious difficulties in the British and American zones, and will give the defeated Germans the power of putting themselves up to auction between the Soviets and Western Democracies. Whatever conclusions may be drawn from these facts -- and facts they are - this is certainly not the liberated Europe we fought to build up. . . . Document D George E Kennan, The Long Telegram, 1946 Excerpted from U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1946 (Washington, D.C., 1969), 6:697-99, and 701-9. A diplomat in the U.S. Embassy in Moscow and a leading expert on Soviet affairs, George E Kennan
sent a long, 8, 000-word, secret telegram to the State Department early in 1946 sketching the roots of Soviet policy and warning of serious difficulties with the Soviet Union in the years ahead. The stilted language is the product of dropped words to shorten the telegram. Kennan recommended a long-term, firm policy of resistance by the United States to Soviet expansionism, known as "containment." At bottom of Kremlin's neurotic view of world affairs is traditional and instinctive Russian sense of insecurity[T]hey have learned to seek security only in patient but deadly struggle for total destruction of rival power, never in compacts and compromises with it Agencies utilized [by the Soviet Union] for promulgation of policies on this plane are following: Inner central core of Communist Parties in other countries . . . tightly coordinated and directed by Moscow . . .. Rank and file of Communist Parties National associations or bodies which can be dominated or influencedThese include: labor unions, Youth leagues, women's organizations, racial societies, religious societies, social organizations, cultural groups, liberal magazines, publishing houses, etc. International organizations which can be similarly penetrated through influence over various national components. Labor, youth and women's organizations are prominent among them ...
In summary, we have here a political force committed fanatically to the belief that with US there can be no permanent modus vivendi, that it is desirable and necessary that the internal harmony of our society be disrupted, our traditional way of life be destroyed, the international authority of our state be broken, if Soviet power is to be secure Problem of how to cope with this force [is] undoubtedly greatest task our diplomacy has ever faced and probably greatest it will ever have to face . . .. I would like to record my conviction that problem is within our power to solve and that without recourse to any general military conflict. Document E Harry Truman, Truman Doctrine Speech, 1947 In 1947 the democratic government of Greece was threatened by communist guerrillas believed to be receiving support from the Soviet Union. Facing financial problems and the
decline of its empire, the British announced that they could no longer offer support to Greece and Turkey. Americans feared that this would leave Greece and perhaps Turkey open to Soviet domination. The Soviet Union had already taken steps to install communist governments in Poland, Rumania and Bulgaria seemingly in violation of the Yalta Agreement which had called for free elections in these nations. In this speech Truman asked Congress for $400 million to aid Greece and Turkey, asserting that it was the policy of the United States to "support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one. One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections,
and the suppression of personal freedoms. I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic stability and Document F HUAC Interrogates Screenwriter Sam Ornitz, 1947 The Newshour With Jim Lehrer, Excerpt from Seeing Red, October 24, 1997 Excerpted from the PBS documentary "The Legacy of the Hollywood Blacklist" http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/entertainment/july-dec97/blacklist_10-24.html The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) existed on a temporary basis beginning in 1938 and became a permanent committee in 1945. HUAC is most widely known for its investigations of suspected Communist influence in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the most well-known investigation being of State Department official Alger Hiss. In September 1947, HUAC subpoenaed 41
witnesses for its hearings on Communist influence in Hollywood. The ten unfriendly witnesses, known as the "Hollywood Ten," who eventually came to the hearings in October 1947 became the most famous participants in the HUAC hearings. HUAC's initial investigations of Communists in Hollywood ended after the testimony of the Hollywood Ten. The committee resumed investigations of Communist influence on movies in the early 1950s and continued them for several years. The following interrogation of screenwriter Sam Ornitz is an example of the methods used by the committee and the responses from witnesses who refused to "name names." SPOKESMAN: Are you a member of the Screen Writers Guild? SAM ORNITZ, Screenwriter: I wish to reply to that question by saying that this involves a serious question of conscience. SPOKESMAN: Conscience? SAM ORNITZ: Conscience. I say you do raise a serious question of conscience for me when you ask me to act in concert with you to override the Constitution-SPOKESMAN: Mr. Chairman. SAM ORNITZ: Wait a minute -- asking me to violate the constitutional guarantee ofSPOKESMAN: Typical communist subversion. The witness is through. Stand away
Document G Joseph McCarthy, "Speech at Wheeling West Virginia," 1950 Congressional Record, 81 Cong., 2 Sess., pp. 1952-57 http://www.turnerlearning.com/cnn/coldwar/reds/reds_re3.html When the junior Senator from Wisconsin spoke before the Ohio Country Womens Republican Club in Wheeling, West Virginia in February 1950 he claimed to have a list of 205 communists who worked in the U.S. State Department, shaping American foreign policy. He repeated the speech with minor changes, and placed it in the congressional record. Though McCarthys numbers would fluctuate, the charges would propel him to the forefront of American politics. Today we are engaged in a final, all-out battle between communistic atheism and Christianity.... And, ladies and gentlemen, the chips are down they are truly down.... Six years ago... there was within the Soviet orbit 180 million people. Lined up on the antitotalitarian side there were in the world at that time roughly 1.625 billion people. Today, only six years later, there are 800 million people under the absolute domination of Soviet
Russia an increase of over 400 percent. On our side the figure has shrunk to around 500 million. In other words, in less than six years the odds have changed from 9 to 1 in our favor to 8 to 5 against us. This indicates the swiftness of the tempo of communist victories and American defeats in the cold war. As one of our outstanding historical figures once said, "When a great democracy is destroyed, it will not be because of enemies from without, but rather because of enemies from within."... Document H 8a National Security Council , NSC-68: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security , April 14, 1950 http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsc-hst/nsc-68.htm In this memo that would have a significant impact on American policy, the presidents national security advisors depict the threat that the U.S.S.R. poses to American interests and what will be required of the United States in its conflict with Soviet Union.
[T]he Soviet Union, unlike previous aspirants to hegemony, is animated by a new fanatic faith, antithetical to our own, and seeks to impose its absolute authority over the rest of the world. Conflict has, therefore, become endemic and is waged, on the part of the Soviet Union, by violent and non-violent methods in accordance with the dictates of expediency. With the development of increasingly terrifying weapons of mass destruction, every individual faces the ever-present possibility of annihilation should the conflict enter the phase of total war. Our overall policy at the present time may be described as one designed to foster a world environment in which the American system can survive and flourishThis broad intention embraces two subsidiary policies. One is a policy... of attempting to develop a healthy international community. The other is the policy of "containing" the Soviet system. The two policies are closely interrelated and interact on one another. A comprehensive and decisive program to win the peace and frustrate the Kremlin design should be so designed that it can be sustained for as long as necessary.... It would probably involve:
A substantial increase in expenditures for military purposes.... Document H 8b (CONTINUED) National Security Council , NSC-68: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security , April 14, 1950 http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsc-hst/nsc-68.htm A comprehensive and decisive program to win the peace and frustrate the Kremlin design should be so designed that it can be sustained for as long as necessary.... It would probably involve: A substantial increase in expenditures for military purposes.... A substantial increase in military assistance programs... [to meet] the requirements of our allies.... Some increase in economic assistance programs [for our allies].... Development of programs designed to build and maintain confidence among other peoples in our strength and resolution.... Intensification of affirmative and timely measures and operations by covert means in the fields of economic warfare and political and psychological warfare with a view to fomenting and
supporting unrest and revolt in selected strategic... countries. Development of internal security and civilian defense programs. Improvement and intensification of intelligence activities Reduction of Federal expenditures for purposes other than defense and foreign assistance.... Increased taxes.... The whole success of the proposed program hangs ultimately on recognition by this Government, the American people, and all free peoples, that the cold war is in fact a real war in which the survival of the free world is at stake. Document I J. Weston Walch, DBQ 22: The Cold War Begins. 1999. Scott Sagan, The Evolution of U.S Nuclear Doctrine, Published in Moving Targets (Princeton University) The arms race was an important part of the Cold War. Both superpowers developed technology and used their nuclear power to build as many weapons as possible. This
nuclear buildup led to a "balance of terror," which some saw as a deterrent to war. But others feared the use of these weapons. The chart below shows the number of nuclear warheads during the Cold War. . Document J Illingworth, Leslie. The Beginning of the Cold War. The Daily Mail, June 16, 1947 http://www.cartoons.ac.uk/record/ILW1262 British Cartoonist, Leslie Illingworth illustrates in the British newspaper, The Daily Mail, the potential influence and potential future goals of Josef Stalin upon Europe. Many individuals questioned the position of the western powers in aiding or preventing this potential expansion. The Beginning of the Cold War
Extra sources if interested? DELETED 2015 J. Weston Walch, DBQ 22: The Cold War Begins. 1999. The arms race was an important part of the Cold War. Both superpowers developed technology and used their nuclear power to build as many weapons as possible. This nuclear buildup led to a "balance of terror," which some saw as a deterrent to war. But others feared the use of these weapons. These charts show the buildup of ICBM's (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles) and long-range bombers between 1966 and 1974. .
DELETED for 2015 Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Vital Center: The Politics of Freedom (1949) Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1949 http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/50s/vital-center.html Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., a noted historian and public intellectual, was a leading voice of the "consensus school" in the 1950s, the notion that a "vital center" existed in the American polity between communism and totalitarianism and that center was liberalism. Another objective [of the American communists] is what the Communists call "mass organizations"- that is, groups of liberals organized for some benevolent purpose, and because of innocence, laziness and stupidity of most of the membership, perfectly designed
for control by an alert minority The Attorney Generals list of subversive groups (whatever the merit of this type of list as a form of official procedure) provides a convenient way of checking the more obvious Communist-controlled groups DELETED 2015 The following political cartoon illustrates President Dwight Eisenhowers Secretary of State, John Foster Dulless theory of brinksmanship. This theory was adopted by the Eisenhower administration as its policy towards communism. Block, Herbert. Dont Be Afraid I Can Always Pull You Back. The Washington Post, January 14, 1956. . Osgood, Caruthers. Soviet Downs American Plane; U.S. Says It Was Weather
Craft; Khrushchev Sees Summit Blow. Deleted 2015 The New York Times May 5, 1960. In this document, The New York Times reports upon the U-2 Incident and the American attempt at a cover-up. It also, details the Russian response to potential American aggression and its impact upon the upcoming summit between the two super-powers. Soviet Downs American Plane; U.S. Says It Was Weather Craft; Khrushchev Sees Summit Blow Premier is Bitter, Assails 'Provocation Aimed at Wrecking' May 16 Parley By Osgood Caruthers Special to The New York Times Moscow, May 5 -- Premier Khrushchev said today that a United States plane on a mission of "aggressive provocation aimed at wrecking the summit conference" invaded Soviet territory May 1 and was shot down. The Premier, in the most blistering speech against American policies he had made since his meetings with President Eisenhower last autumn, declared that the incursion, as well as declarations by United
States policy makers, cast gloom on the prospects for the success of the summit meeting in Paris eleven days hence. He expressed anger over the fact that President Eisenhower had supported declarations against Soviet foreign policies by Vice President Richard M. Nixon, Secretary of State Christian A. Herter, Under Secretary of State Douglas Dillon and others. Homework: STUDY for Post-WW II & Cold War QUIZ (W/3/23/16) DBQ analysis (AF+) or Unit III study guide check Wednesday Tuesday, March 22, 2016 I. REVIEW of Post-WW II & early Cold War HOT Cold War video Ch. 18 ttt & Ch. 37-40 notes Select video clips EGGSPERT
II. Cold War DBQ OR Unit III Study Guide Individual OR Collaborative Work OPPORTUNITY Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts 1. The Cold War was a war without direct between the U.S. and the . It started soon after the end of because of the two nations conflicting and systems and their
disagreements over the future of . Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts 1. The Cold War was a war without direct military confrontation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union (USSR). It started soon after the end of World War II because of the two nations conflicting political and economic systems and their disagreements over the future of Europe. Other answers? Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts
2. The United States got involved in the Korean War to halt the spread of stopping the advance of Korea. in Asia by Korea into Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts 2. The United States got involved in the Korean War to halt the spread of communism in Asia by stopping the Communist advance of North Korea into South Korea. Other answers?
Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts 3a. Americans began to fear the influence of communism within their own after the success of Communist takeovers in Europe and . Two spy cases increased this fear: the case of , who was accused of spying for the Soviets, and that of the , who were executed for giving the Soviets secret information about the atom bomb. Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts 3. Americans began to fear the influence of communism within their own borders after the success of Communist takeovers in Eastern Europe and China. Two spy cases increased this fear: the case of Alger Hiss, who was accused of spying for the Soviets, and
that of the Rosenbergs, who were executed for giving the Soviets secret information about the atom bomb. Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts 3b. Some effects of the fear of communism: the establishment of the Loyalty Review Board to investigate ; s investigation of the Hollywood film industry; the passage of the McCarran Act that outlawed the planning of acts against the U.S. government; and Senator s unproved accusations against hundreds of government officials. Most of these actions were
. Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts 3. Some effects of the fear of communism: the establishment of the Loyalty Review Board to investigate government employees; (House Committee on Un-American Activities) HUACs investigation of the Hollywood film industry; the passage of the McCarran Act that outlawed the planning of subversive acts against the U.S. government; and Senator Joseph McCarthys unproved accusations against hundreds of government officials. Most of these actions were unconstitutional. Other answers? Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts 4. Some of the events that increased hostilities between the U.S. and the Soviet Union: the race; creation of
and the ; the s covert actions in interfering with some foreign governments; the launching of ; the Soviet invasion of ; Soviet threat of missile launch against British, French, and Israelis over seizure of the ; the U-2 incident in which a CIA Soviet territory. was brought down over
Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts 4. List some events of the 1950s that increased hostilities between the United States and the Soviet Union. 4. Some of the events that increased hostilities between the U.S. and the Soviet Union: the arms race; creation of NATO and the Warsaw Pact; the (Central Intelligence Agencys) CIAs covert actions in interfering with some foreign governments; the launching of Sputnik I; the Soviet invasion of Hungary; Soviet threat of missile launch against British, French, and Israelis over seizure of the Suez Canal; the U-2 incident in which a CIA spy plane was brought down over Soviet territory. Alive! Ch. 37: The Aftermath of WW II At the end of World War II, the United States vowed not to repeat the mistakes of World War I.
With the other Allies, it worked to establish ways of avoiding future conflicts and dealing with war crimes. At home, Congress passed legislation to help returning veterans rejoin postwar society. Four Freedoms In 1941, Franklin Roosevelt expressed the wish that all people should have freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. These Four Freedoms became part of the charter of the United Nations. United Nations Before the war was over, 50 nations cooperated to form the United Nations. The United States played a strong role in founding this international organization. The goals of the United Nations include world peace, security, and respect for human rights. Nuremberg War Crimes Trials Instead of punishing all Germans, the Allies held Nazi leaders responsible at the Nuremberg Trials. A similar set of trials brought Japanese leaders to justice. Later, temporary international tribunals, as well as a permanent International Criminal Court, were formed to deal with war criminals. Geneva Conventions To catalog war crimes, many nations of the world met at Geneva, Switzerland, in 1949. The Geneva Conventions prescribed the proper treatment of the wounded,
prisoners of war, and civilians. GI Bill of Rights The United States sought to prevent economic and social problems at home after the war. One measure designed to accomplish this goal was the GI Bill of Rights, which provided unemployment benefits, college funds, and housing loans to veterans. Alive! Ch. 38: Origins of the Cold War In the postwar period, clear differences between the United States and the Soviet Union soon emerged. Communist ideology and the creation of Soviet-backed states in Eastern Europe alarmed the U.S. government. The United States responded with efforts to support European democracy and limit Soviet expansion. As the rivalry intensified, Europe divided into communistcontrolled Eastern Europe and mostly democratic Western Europe. Yalta and Potsdam Conferences At Yalta, the Allied leaders met to shape postwar Europe. They divided Germany and Berlin into four occupation zones each and declared their support for selfgovernment and free elections in Eastern Europe. At Potsdam, the leaders finalized their postwar plans for Germany. However, the relationship among the superpowers began to weaken. Iron Curtain In a 1946 speech, Winston Churchill accused the Soviet Union of dividing Europe into East and West and drawing an iron curtain, or barrier, across the continent.
UN Atomic Energy Commission At the United Nations, the United States offered a plan to limit the development of atomic weapons. The Soviet Union, working on its own atomic bomb, rejected U.S. efforts to retain a monopoly on atomic energy. Truman Doctrine President Truman adopted a policy of containment as part of the Truman Doctrine. The doctrine aimed to limit the spread of communism and support democracy. Marshall Plan This aid program reflected the Truman Doctrines goals. It provided aid to European nations to help them recover from the war, promote stability, and limit the appeal of communism. The Soviets responded with the Molotov Plan for Eastern Europe. Cold War The postwar struggle for power between the United States and the Soviet Union became known as the Cold War. Although this was largely a war of words and influence, it threatened to heat up and produce armed conflict between the superpowers. Alive! Ch. 39: The Cold War Expands During the Cold War, the superpower conflict that began in Europe expanded to China and other parts of the world. The nuclear arms race added to Cold War tensions.
Berlin Blockade In 1948, the Soviet Union set up a blockade around Berlin to force the Allies to either abandon the city or cancel plans for the creation of West Germany. The Allies launched an airlift to bring supplies into Berlin and break the blockade. In the end, Germany was split between east and west. NATO and the Warsaw Pact In 1949, the Western powers formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as a military alliance to counter Soviet aggression. The Soviets responded by forming their own military alliance, the Warsaw Pact, with Eastern European countries. Korean War After the fall of China to communism, Cold War tensions flared up in Korea. In 1950, North Korean communists invaded South Korea, prompting a war with U.S. and UN forces. The Korean War ended in 1953, but Korea remained divided. Third World During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union tried to win friends and allies in the Third Worldthe developing nations of Latin America, Africa, and Asia. This battle for hearts and minds involved propaganda, aid, covert action, and military intervention. Mutual Assured Destruction The invention of the H-bomb fueled a deadly arms race. In
response, the United States developed various policies, including brinkmanship and deterrence, to manage the nuclear threat. In the end, it relied on the policy of Mutual Assured Destruction to limit the chances of all-out war. Alive! Ch. 40: Fighting the Cold War at Home Like earlier wars, the Cold War created fright and anxiety on the home front. Fearful of attacks from within, the government sought to root out communist subversion. Faced with the threat of nuclear attack from the Soviet Union, it promoted civil defense and preparedness planning. House Un-American Activities Committee HUAC investigated the loyalty of people in many areas of life. Its probe of the movie industry led movie studio heads to blacklist anyone thought to be a communist or communist sympathizer. Spy trials Fears of subversion deepened with the Alger Hiss case and the Rosenberg trial. Hiss served a prison term, and the Rosenbergs were executed for selling atomic secrets to the USSR. McCarthyism Senator Joseph McCarthy launched a well-publicized crusade against subversives
in government. The term McCarthyism came to refer to personal attacks against innocent people with little or no evidence to support the charges. Atomic Age Americans greeted the Atomic Age with a mixture of fear and excitement. Many people had high hopes for peaceful uses of atomic power. Federal Civil Defense Administration Congress established the FCDA to help Americans survive a nuclear attack. The FCDA published civil defense manuals and promoted drills and other measures to protect Americans from harm. As the power of nuclear weapons increased, however, the usefulness of such precautions came into question. What ignited the Cold War? Explain at least TWO SPECIFIC THINGS that contributed to PostWW II tensions between the US and
the USSR. How many causes? What was the root cause? Describe the new balance of power. CLICK hyperlinks to READ about Flow of History http://www.flowofhistory.com/rea How do you fight a Cold War? Describe the
thought process and how to win without starting WW III? http://www.flowofhist ory.com/readings-flow charts/the-world-since -1945/the-post-war-w orld-1945-60/fc139 How do events in Europe and Asia compare during the
early years of the Cold War? http://www.fl owofhistory.co m/readings-flo wcharts/the-w orld-since-194 5/the-post-war -world-1945-6 0/fc140 Explain at least TWO SPECIFIC THINGS that illustrate how
the conflict was DIFFERENT in Europe compared to ASIA How many packet terms are in this flowchart? REVIEW details from Chapters 1-9. The United States and the Soviet Union emerged from World War II at odds over their postwar goals. The escalation of these conflicting opinions led the world into a tense, bitter struggle that came to be known as the Cold War. While the world's superpowers never battled each other directly, their indirect involvement with each
other in locales around the globe pushed the world to the brink of nuclear war. This vivid program utilizes archival footage and interviews with renowned experts to dramatize this uneasy period in American history, featuring in-depth coverage of the crisis in Berlin, Fidel Castro and Cuba and the eventual fall of the Soviet Union. The Cold War Safari Montage At the end of World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as the worlds dominant superpowers. Allies during the war, the two sides had conflicting post-war goals. The U.S. wanted to extend its principles of democracy and capitalism throughout war-weary Europe and developing Third World countries, while the Soviet Union was interested in surrounding itself with a buffer zone of Communist nations in Eastern Europe,
as well as supporting Communist movements throughout the world. The resulting ideological clash between the two superpowers led to a tense, bitter competition for the next 50 years, known as the Cold War. While the United States and Soviet Union never went to war directly, they battled indirectly in various locations throughout the world. In an attempt to contain Soviet expansion, U.S. troops were sent to Korea in 1950 to drive Communist forces from the South. Although this struggle ended in a stalemate, the U.S. and its allies showed that they were The Cold War (CONTD) A particularly dangerous aspect of the Cold War was the nuclear arms race, and the world faced a possible nuclear catastrophe in 1962 during the Cuban Missile Crisis. After a period of dtente during the Nixon and Carter
administrations, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 escalated Cold War tensions, and President Ronald Reagan made defeating communism the cornerstone of his foreign policy. Increased military spending during the Reagan years is credited with hastening the collapse of the Soviet Union, as the Soviet economy was unable to match the U.S. military build-up. U.S. military might, combined with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachevs policy of political openness, stirred the people of Eastern Europe to end Communist regimes, and by the end of 1993, the Cold War was over. The rapid collapse of the Soviet Union and the sudden end of the Cold War left the United States and Western Europe scrambling to reshape a new world in which democracy and capitalism could flourish. Cold War Timeline
1945 World War II ends. 1946 The Soviet Union begins to dominate the countries of Eastern Europe. 1948 The United States implements the Marshall Plan. 1948 The United States begins the Berlin Airlift. 1949 NATO is formed. 1950 The Korean War begins. 1955 The Warsaw Pact is formed. 1957 The Soviet Union launches Sputnik. 1958 NASA is created. 1960 The Soviet Union shoots down an American U2 spy plane. 1961 The Berlin Wall is erected. 1961 The United States sends its first military personnel to Vietnam. 1962 The Cuban Missile Crisis. 1963 President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas, on Nov. 22nd.
1972 President Nixon makes an unprecedented trip to Communist China. 1972 SALT I treaty with the Soviet Union is completed. Cold War Vocabulary Third World The group of developing countries in the world not linked with the United States or the Soviet Union during the Cold War. capitalism An economic system characterized by private ownership of property and free enterprise. communism An economic system in which all goods are owned jointly; in the Soviet Union, this developed into a government in which all social and economic policy decisions were made by a single party. Cold War An intense hostile rivalry during the second half of the 20th century between Communist nations, particularly the Soviet Union, and the democratic nations of the world, led by the United States. containment The foreign policy of the United Sates designed to stop the growth of communism. Iron Curtain An imaginary line that separated the countries in Western Europe from the countries
under Soviet domination in Eastern Europe. Truman Doctrine A 1947 pronouncement by President Truman that offered aid to the governments of Greece and Turkey in their fight against Soviet influence; the first application of the containment policy. Marshall Plan A program implemented by the United States in 1948 to help bolster the economies of European countries trying to recover after World War II. blockade A military strategy that attempts to isolate a country by preventing the movement of its people and goods. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) A mutual defense alliance established in 1949 between the United States, Canada and several Western European countries designed to safeguard Western Europe against Soviet attack. Warsaw Pact A mutual defense organization established in 1955 by the Soviet Union and several Eastern European countries. Cold War Vocabulary
Sputnik- A Russian space satellite launched in 1957 that caused the United States to reassess its role as a world leader in technology and develop its own space agency. Berlin Wall A barrier surrounding the German city of West Berlin, constructed by the Soviet Union in 1961 to stop people from fleeing Communist East Berlin. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) An organization in the United States responsible for gathering information and facilitating overseas communications. Bay of Pigs An unsuccessful attempt by U.S.-backed Cuban exiles to overthrow Communist Cuban leader Fidel Castro in April 1961. domino theory The fear that the spread of communism would run rampant among neighboring countries if one were to fall under Communist influence. dtente The relaxation of tensions between nations. Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) Agreement between the United States and Soviet Union intended to limit the proliferation of long-range nuclear weapons. Contra A member of a military group that fought the Sandinista government in Nicaragua. Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) A program proposed by President Reagan in 1983 that was
intended to provide the United States with a space-based defense system to guard against possible nuclear attacks. Intermediate Nuclear Force Treaty (INF) An agreement signed by President Reagan and Soviet President Gorbachev in 1987 that called for the elimination of medium-range nuclear weapons. glasnost A policy of political openness in Soviet society instituted by leader Mikhail The Cold War Safari Montage Homework: DBQ packet or Unit III study guide due Wed/3/30 (30 pts) Wednesday, March 23, 2016 I. COLLECT Cold War DBQ OR Unit III Study Guide -5 maximum DEDUCTION if NOT adequately complete
II. Quiz #3: Post-WW II & early Cold War Ch. 18, 37-4050 pts