INFERNO CANTO 3: THE VESTIBULE OF HELL The Opportunists Neither for good nor evil but only for themselves Uncommitted one way or another; never chose sides in Rebellion of Angels Reside on shores of Acheron (not in Hell or outside of it) Punishment: race around chasing a banner that flows through dirty air chased by wasps and hornets that sting them constantly and draw blood and puss worms and maggots feast on sores
Contrapasso: Took no sides so no real consistent location Always changing direction (chasing banner) Choose no lighted path so must run around in dark Inscription: I AM THE WAY INTO THE CITY OF WOE. I AM THE WAY TO A FORSAKEN PEOPLE. I AM THE WAY INTO ETERNAL SORROW. SACRED JUSTICE MOVED MY ARCHITECT. I WAS RAISED HERE BY DIVINE OMNIPOTENCE, PRIMORDIAL LOVE AND ULTIMATE INTELLECT.
ONLY THOSE ELEMENTS TIME CANNOT WEAR WERE MADE BEFORE ME, AND BEYOND TIME I STAND. ABANDON ALL HOPE YE WHO ENTER HERE. Circle One: Limbo Inhabitants: nonChristians and unbaptized pagans Punishment: eternity in an inferior form of Heaven Circle Two:
Lust Inhabitants: those ruled by physical desire Punishment: blown violently back and forth by strong winds, preventing them from finding peace and rest Circle Three: Gluttony Inhabitants: excessive indulgers (eating/drinking) Punishment: forced to lie in a vile slush that is produced
by never-ending icy rain Circle Four: Greed Punishment: the two Inhabitants: those who hoarded groups joust, using great possessions and those who weights which they push lavishly spent with their chests Circle Five: Wrath Inhabitants: the angry and sullen Punishment: the
wrathful fight each other on the surface of the river Styx and the sullen gurgle beneath the Circle Six: Heresy Inhabitants: those who doubted or denied the Christian faith Punishment: condemned to eternity in flaming
tombs 1. Outer ring: violent against others/property Punishment: sunk into a river of boiling blood and fire Circle Seven: Violent 2. Middle ring: violent against self (suicides) Punishment: turned into trees and bushes which are fed
upon by harpies 3. Inner ring: violent against God and nature (blasphemers and sodomites) Punishment: reside in a desert of burning sand Bolgia 1: panderers and seducers Punishment: whipped by demons Bolgia 2: flatterers Punishment: submerged in human excrement Bolgia 3: simony (the making of profit out of sacred things) Punishment: buried head-first with flames burning their feet Circle Eight:
Fraud Bolgia 4: sorcerers, astrologers, and false prophets Punishment: have their heads twisted around on their bodies backward Bolgia 5: corrupt politicians Punishment: immersed in a lake of boiling pitch Bolgia 6: hypocrites Punishment: apathetically walk along wearing gold-plated lead cloaks Bolgia 7: thieves Punishment: bitten and transformed by snakes and lizards Bolgia 8: evil counselors and advisers Punishment: individually covered in fire Bolgia 9: divisive individuals (start drama) Punishment: sword-wielding demon cuts them into pieces Bolgia 10: alchemists, counterfeiters, perjurers, and impostors
Punishment: afflicted with different diseases Circle Nine: Round 1: named Cana, after Cain, who killed his own brother; Treachery traitors to kindred Punishment: immersed in the ice upof toTroy, theirwho chins with heads
Round 2: named Antenora, after Antenor betrayed his bent city to theforward Greeks; traitors to political entities Punishment: immersed in the ice up to their chins Round 3: named Ptolomaea, after Ptolemy, who invited father- and brothers-in-law to a banquet and then killed them; traitors to their guests Punishment: lying on backs, fully
covered in ice except after their Judas faces Round 4: named Judecca, Iscariot, Biblical betrayer of Christ; traitors to their lords and benefactors Punishment: completely covered in ice Circle Nine, Center of Earth: Satan Satan, half submerged
in ice, gnaws on Brutus, Cassius, and Judas with his three mouths CANTO 34: COMPOUND FRAUD, TREACHEROUS TO THEIR MASTERS, AND SATAN Read the handout for Canto 34 Answer the following questions: 1. In Canto 34, why does Dante regard Judas, Brutus, and Cassius as the worst sinners of all? How does Judass sin differ from that of Brutus and Cassius? 2. In what way could Satans three faces be explained as symbols?
EXTENSION QUESTIONS: Dante ranks human sins by his placement of different sinner in Hell. Does their punishment fit their crimes? Explain. Honors: What importance does Dante place on reason? What generalization can you make about Dantes view of reason? Use evidence in the poem to make your generalization. In his introduction to the Inferno, Archibald T. MacAllister states that Dante believed that the mind must be moved in order to grasp what the senses present to it; therefore he combines sight, sound, hearing, smell and touch with fear, pity, anger, horror and other appropriate emotions to involve his reader to the point of seeming actually to experience his situations and not merely to read about them. Do you agree that Dantes use of images effectively draws readers into his story and makes them feel strong emotions?
PURGATORIO sectioned into seven layered parts on a mountain (seven deadly sins) directly opposite of Inferno composed of rock that shifted due to Satans fall souls in Purgatorio have ability to move up into Paradiso through penitence Purgatorio is separated into three major sections (AntePurgatorio, Purgatorio Proper, and The Earthly Paradise),
each being separated into further sections to differentiate the sins of the spirits. When the sun sets, the spirits arent allowed to try to further climb the mountain. Ante-Purgatorio: The Excommunicated: these spirits were too stubborn to obey authority (the Church); they must stay put thirty times longer than the amount of time they went against the Church The Late Repentant: these
spirits were either too lazy to repent or These seven deadly sins are all based on love (unnatural, inferior, or Purgatorio Proper: First Terrace: The Proud excessive). They can(opposing leave ONLY when they have completely repented. virtue is Humility) These sinners carry large stones on
their backs, forcing them to hunch over (popular sinners/sins: Satan, the Tower of Babel, Arachne, and King Saul) Second Terrace: The Envious (opposing virtue is Generosity) These sinners are cloaked and have their eyes sewn shut (popular sinner: Cain) Third Terrace: The Wrathful (opposing virtue is The Gate of Purgatorio Meekness) Proper
These sinners walk around in thick, pungent smoke (popular sinner: Fourth Terrace: The Slothful (opposing virtue is Zeal) These sinners are forced to do pointless activities (no popular sinners because they are too busy with their pointless activities to talk to Dante) Fifth Terrace: The Greedy (opposing virtue is Charity) These sinners lie face-down on the ground and cannot move Sixth Terrace: The Gluttonous (opposing virtue is Seventh Terrace: The Self-Restraint)
(opposing These sinners are unableLustful to reach the fruit of a virtue is Chastity) tree just out of reach These drunken sinners walk (sound familiar?) (popular sinners: through Centaurs) flames crying out examples of lust and trying to hug each other (popular examples: that
daughter of Helios who slept with a bull, The Earthly Paradise (A.K.A. Garden of Eden): Dante hears the most beautiful music and sees seven floating candles. Behind them, he sees a processional of allegorical symbols (allegory inception here): 1. twenty-four old men with lilies draped over their heads, representing the 24 books of the Hebrew Bible 2. four animals with six wings each full of eyes (like Argus), representing the four Evangelists 3. a two-wheeled chariot pulling Beatrice (yay!!) toward Dante, representing the divinity of Christ 4. a griffin (pulling the previous chariot), representing the humanity of Christ (together, they represent the
joining of these two) 5. three women (shining red, green, and white), representing the three theological virtues: Love, Hope, and Faith 6. four other women dressed in purple, representing the four cardinal virtues: Prudence, Justice, Temperance, and Fortitude 7. two old men (one bearing a sword), representing the Acts of the Apostles and the Pauline epistles 8. four humble-looking people, representing the Dante has a super emotional discussion about his faith with Beatrice, after which he passes through the river Lethe, washing away his sins. He then drinks from
the river Euno, which returns his PARADISO Everyone here technically lives with God in Empyrean, but in order to make the journey more understandable for us (and himself), Dante describes the souls he meets in different spheres. The spirits all recognize that their placement is fair because they are at least in the realm of God. The first section holds those who were blessed, good people but werent as perfect as their later counterparts. Circle 1: Sphere of the Moon The Inconstant (fickle): slowest moving sphere for those who were forced to abandoned their vows to God Circle 2: Sphere of Mercury
The Ambitious: associated with the Messenger God (Mercury/Hermes), and a planet often blocked by the Sun; these spirits desired glory (the wrong kind of justice); Beatrice explains the crucifixion of Christ and the atonement of Man Circle 3: Sphere of Venus The Lovers: associated with the Goddess of Circle 4: Sphere of the Sun The second section holds those who lived lives according to the four cardinal virtues: The Wise: like the brightness of the sun, these spirits Wisdom, Justice, Self-Restraint, andwisdom
Courage. brought to the world (philosophers, theologians and a king - including, Thomas Aquinas and King Solomon) Circle 5: Sphere of Mars The Warriors of Faith: associated with the God of War (Mars/Ares), these spirits gave their lives and all their strength/courage for God (popular spirits include Joshua, Charlemagne, and one of Dantes ancestors) Circle 6: Sphere of Jupiter The Just Rulers: associated with the King of Gods (Jupiter/Zeus), these
spirits were fair, strong rulers (popular spirits include David and Constantine) Circle 7: Sphere of Saturn The Contemplatives: associated with the leader of the Titans (Saturn/Cronus), these spirits dedicated their lives to prayer The third section holds the spirits closest to God, including God Himself. Circle 8: Sphere of the Fixed Stars, The Zodiac Faith, Hope, and Love: Dante sees the Virgin Mary, St. Peter, St. James, and St.
John; Peter questions Dantes faith, James questions Dantes hope, and John questions Dantes love Circle 9: Crystalline Sphere, Primum Mobile (first mover previous spheres moved by God) Nine rings of angels Empyrean: Gods location The rose of the faithful: Dante sees all the aforementioned spirits and angels residing within; apparition of God as three
layered circles (representing the Trinity); angels fly around the white rose like a troop of bees
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