Welcome to the ECE 449 Computer Design Lab

Welcome to the ECE 449 Computer Design Lab

ECE 448 Lecture 6 Finite State Machines State Diagrams vs. Algorithmic State Machine (ASM) Charts George Mason University Required reading P. Chu, FPGA Prototyping by VHDL Examples Chapter 5, FSM 2 Recommended reading S. Brown and Z. Vranesic, Fundamentals of Digital Logic with VHDL Design Chapter 8, Synchronous Sequential Circuits

Sections 8.1-8.5 Section 8.10, Algorithmic State Machine (ASM) Charts 3 Datapath vs. Controller 4 Structure of a Typical Digital System Data Inputs Datapath (Execution Unit)

Control & Status Inputs Control Signals Controller (Control Unit) Status Signals Data Outputs Control & Status Outputs 5 Datapath (Execution Unit)

Manipulates and processes data Performs arithmetic and logic operations, shifting/rotating, and other data-processing tasks Is composed of registers, multiplexers, adders, decoders, comparators, ALUs, gates, etc. Provides all necessary resources and interconnects among them to perform specified task Interprets control signals from the Controller and generates status signals for the Controller 6 Controller (Control Unit) Controls data movement in the Datapath by switching multiplexers and enabling or disabling resources Example: enable signals for registers

Example: select signals for muxes Provides signals to activate various processing tasks in the Datapath Determines the sequence of operations performed by the Datapath Follows Some Program or Schedule 7 Finite State Machines Controllers can be described as Finite State Machines (FSMs) Finite State Machines can be represented using State Diagrams and State Tables - suitable for simple controllers with a relatively few inputs and outputs Algorithmic State Machine (ASM) Charts suitable for complex controllers with a large number of inputs and outputs All of these descriptions can be easily translated

to the corresponding synthesizable VHDL code 8 Hardware Design with RTL VHDL Interface Pseudocode Datapath Controller Block diagram VHDL code Block diagram

VHDL code State diagram or ASM chart VHDL code 9 Steps of the Design Process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Text description Interface Pseudocode Block diagram of the Datapath Interface divided into Datapath and Controller State diagram or ASM chart of the Controller RTL VHDL code of the Datapath, Controller, and TopLevel Unit 8. Testbench for the Datapath, Controller, and Top-Level Unit 9. Functional simulation and debugging 10. Synthesis and post-synthesis simulation 11. Implementation and timing simulation 12. Experimental testing using FPGA board 10 Steps of the Design Process Introduced in Class Today 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Text description Interface Pseudocode Block diagram of the Datapath Interface divided into Datapath and Controller State diagram or ASM chart of the Controller RTL VHDL code of the Datapath, Controller, and Toplevel Unit 8. Testbench for the Datapath, Controller, and Top-Level Unit 9. Functional simulation and debugging 10. Synthesis and post-synthesis simulation

11. Implementation and timing simulation 12. Experimental testing using FPGA board 11 Finite State Machines Refresher 12 Finite State Machines (FSMs) An FSM is used to model a system that transits among a finite number of internal states. The transitions depend on the current state and external input. The main application of an FSM is to act as the controller of a medium to large digital system Design of FSMs involves Defining states

Defining next state and output functions Optimization / minimization Manual optimization/minimization is practical for small FSMs only 13 Moore FSM Output is a Function of the Present State Only Inputs Next State function Next State clock reset Present State

Present State register Output function Outputs 14 Mealy FSM Output is a Function of the Present State and the Inputs Inputs Next State function

Next State clock reset Present State Present State register Output function Outputs 15 State Diagrams

16 Moore Machine transition condition 1 state 1 / output 1 transition condition 2 state 2 / output 2 17 Mealy Machine

transition condition 1 / output 1 state 2 state 1 transition condition 2 / output 2 18 Moore FSM - Example 1 Moore FSM that Recognizes Sequence 10 0 1 S0 / 0 1

reset Meaning of states: S0: No elements of the sequence observed 0 S1 / 0 0 S1: 1 observed

1 S2 / 1 S2: 10 observed 19 Mealy FSM - Example 1 Mealy FSM that Recognizes Sequence 10 0/0 1/0 S0 reset

Meaning of states: 1/0 S1 0/1 S0: No elements of the sequence observed S1: 1 observed 20

Algorithmic State Machine (ASM) Charts 21 Algorithmic State Machine Algorithmic State Machine representation of a Finite State Machine suitable for FSMs with a larger number of inputs and outputs compared to FSMs expressed using state diagrams and state tables. 22 Elements used in ASM charts (1) State name

Output signals or actions (Moore type) 0 (False) (a) State box Condition expression 1 (True) (b) Decision box Conditional outputs or actions (Mealy type)

(c) Conditional output box 23 State Box State box represents a state. Equivalent to a node in a state diagram or a row in a state table. Contains register transfer actions or output signals Moore-type outputs are listed inside of the box. It is customary to write only the name of the signal that has to be asserted in the given state, e.g., z instead of z<=1. Also, it might be useful to write an action to be taken, e.g., count <= count + 1, and only later translate it to asserting a control signal that causes a given action to take place (e.g.,

enable signal of a counter). State name Output signals or actions (Moore type) 24 Decision Box Decision box indicates that a given condition is to be tested and the exit path is to be chosen accordingly. The condition expression may

include one or more inputs to the FSM. 0 (False) Condition expression 1 (True) 25 Conditional Output Box Conditional output box Denotes output signals that are of the Mealy type.

The condition that determines whether such outputs are generated is specified in the decision box. Conditional outputs or actions (Mealy type) 26 ASM Chart of Moore Machine reset S0 0 S1

1 S2 input 1 input 0 output 1 input 0 27

ASM Chart of Mealy Machine reset S0 0 input S1 1 1 input output

0 28 Moore & Mealy FSMs without delays clock 0 1 0 0 0 input state S0

Moore output S0 S1 S2 S0 S0 state S0 S0 S1

S0 S0 S0 Mealy output 29 Moore & Mealy FSMs with delays clock 0 1 0

0 0 input state S0 Moore output S0 S1 S2 S0

S0 state S0 S0 S1 S0 S0 S0 Mealy output 30

ASMs representing simple FSMs Algorithmic state machines can model both Mealy and Moore Finite State Machines They can also model machines that are of the mixed type 31 Generalized FSM Next State Present State Based on RTL Hardware Design by P. Chu 32 Moore vs. Mealy FSM (1)

Moore and Mealy FSMs Can Be Functionally Equivalent Equivalent Mealy FSM can be derived from Moore FSM and vice versa Mealy FSM Has Richer Description and Usually Requires Smaller Number of States Smaller circuit area 33 Moore vs. Mealy FSM (2) Mealy FSM Computes Outputs as soon as Inputs Change Mealy FSM responds one clock cycle sooner than equivalent Moore FSM Moore FSM Has No Combinational Path

Between Inputs and Outputs Moore FSM is less likely to affect the critical path of the entire circuit 34 Moore vs. Mealy FSM (3) Types of control signal Edge sensitive E.g., enable signal of a counter Both can be used but Mealy is faster Level sensitive E.g., write enable signal of SRAM Moore is preferred 35 Which Way to Go?

Mealy FSM Moore FSM Fewer states Lower Area Safer. Less likely to affect the critical path. Responds one clock cycle earlier 36

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