What Can I Do? Strategies for Encouraging Reciprocal ...
STRATEGIES FOR FACILITATING SPONTANEOUS COMMUNICATION WITH STUDENTS DIAGNOSED WITH AUTISM. 16th International Conference on Autism, Intellectual Disability & Developmental Disabilities January 23, 2015 Presented by Vicky Roy, Ph.D. CCC-SLP and
Amy Cameron, MA.CCC-SLP OBJECTIVES Participants will: Better understand the process that leads to prompt dependency in nonverbal, low verbal, and response only verbal students. Recognize the importance of their own communication use and the impact that it has on the communication of their students. Learn three specific strategies to facilitate spontaneous, independent contributions during reciprocal communication with their students.
TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION THERAPY GOALS FOCUS ON: Requesting Labeling Following Directions Responding CLINICAL PRACTICE: AREAS OF CONCERN Prompt Dependency Limited Spontaneous Communication Limited Reciprocity
HOW DID WE GET HERE? Language and Cognition are inter-related The majority of what is SAID to many children with the label of autism is in an attempt to GET the child to respond, not to allow the child to generate their own input. Focus on isolated, measurable goals Imperative (Directive) Communication vs. Declarative (Experience Sharing) Communication STATIC VS DYNAMIC Measurable
Contextually dependent Reliable Unclear Logical Grey areas Predictable Integrated
Rule based Evolving Facts Emotional Rules Collaborative
ABILITIES INCLUDED IN RECIPROCAL COMMUNICATION Engagement Inhibition Competency Ideation Attention/focus Formulation
Experience matching Auditory processing Curiosity Articulation Tolerance for breakdowns/repairing Co-regulation
CONVERSATION Joint attention Mutual topic with central coherence (ability to derive overall meaning from a mass of details) An unspoken agreement on the topic with flexibility around novel ideas Individual contributions that are unique and related and integrated with partners ideas Back and forth participation, timing, monitoring, adjusting and repairing Shifting attention based on the movement of the conversation Ability to integrate all of the above
COMMUNICATIVE INTENT The purpose or meaning behind why people are communicating with others The why behind communication, language functions What kind of communicative environment are we creating? People with Special Needs, especially individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders often have limited communicative intent More importantly, these same students are exposed to limited communicative intent (Primary purpose for communicating with a student with autism is to GET) WHY? As a Speaker, we expect and rely on feedback from our
Listener. So much so that when we do not receive it, we will make it easier for the child by using Questions, Commands and Prompts. We create an imperative environment. We facilitate a dependency on prompting. RECOGNIZE YOUR INTENT Keep the goal in mind, Be aware that what you say is influencing the BRAIN Expect your job to be challenging because you might receive little feedback initially Declarative vs Imperative
Getting something vs creating opportunity Directing vs Communicating/Collaborating DIRECTIVE/IMPERATIVE COMMUNICATION Questions with definite answers Commands with actions that can be deemed right or wrong Prompts or fill in the blank statements All require minimal thought and input from the Listener All have the intent of GETTING the child to respond
EXPERIENCE SHARING/DECLARATIVE COMMUNICATION Early communication functions that are non-directive are things like: Making actual choices Expressing opinions Calling for attention Noticing things Commenting TAKE AN ASSESSMENT OF YOUR COMMUNICATION What is the child doing?
What are YOU doing? How is your language impacting the childs opportunity to grow as a reciprocal communicator How are you feeling about this interaction check your own regulation SYSTEMATIC OPPORTUNITIES Must have systematic opportunities for STUDENTS to make progress as thinkers How to think vs How to know STRATEGY #1
Identify a time frame or a specific activity where you will practice creating thinking and sharing opportunities for your students What percentage of the childs day can be devoted to thinking opportunities? STRATEGY #2 Decrease the amount of talking, specifically the amount of questions and commands you use. By asking a questions and giving commands, you ONLY provide an opportunity for your students to RESPOND.
Comment, think out loud, invite, notice, share, expand, make real decisions STRATEGY #3 SLOW DOWN Give your child time to think, organize themselves and make a contribution. Pause for a minimum of 5 seconds before scaffolding, repeating, or rephrasing. Use the anticipatory gaze and pregnant pausing IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
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