What Every LMS Should Know about Teaching Multiple Literacies ...
What Every SLMS Should Know about Teaching Multiple Literacies Strategies Prepared by the SLMS Role in Reading Task Force July 2009 What are multiple literacies? Visual Digital Textual Technological
The ability to understand and use images, including the ability to think, learn, and express oneself in terms of images. (Braden and Hortin 1982,41) The ability to understand, evaluate, create, and integrate
information in multiple digital formats via the computer and Internet. (Gilster 1997) The ability to read, write, analyze, and evaluate textual works of literature and personal and professional documents.
The ability to responsibly use appropriate technology to communicate, solve problems, and access, manage, integrate, evaluate, and create information to improve learning in all subject areas and to acquire lifelong knowledge and skills in the 21 century. (SETDA n.d.) Source: Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action. AASL, pp. 18-19.
Why Teach These Skills? In this increasing global world of information, students must be taught to seek diverse perspectives, gather and use information ethically, and use social tools responsibly and safely. Todays students need to develop information skills that will enable them to use technology as an important tool for learning, both now and in the future. Source: Common Beliefs. Standards for the 21-Century Learner. AASL, p. 11. Education and
Collaboration Educators need support and encouragement to learn these everchanging technologies and integrate them into the classroom curriculum. School library media specialists have the expertise in multiple literacies to collaborate with teachers for effective teaching and learning. Reading in Multiple Formats 21st-century reading is accomplished through a variety of resources beyond the traditional print, one can: read a
picture, read an auditory story, read a multimedia website, and more. Teaching critical evaluation of media, called media literacy, is best achieved pursuing participatory, collaborative projects involving classroom teachers, special area teachers, and students. How do these multiple literacies impact meaning making? Visual Literacy Learners are constantly bombarded by information. A deluge of messages are conveyed through the use of pictures,
photographs, and video. Learning how to read and evaluate visual media is a skill that can be taught, just as reading is taught. Students must also learn to express their understandings through visual representations. Visual Literacy Strategy Show students images and talk Photograph by Judi Moreillon about what they mean. Make associations between images and ideas, make inferences, develop
metaphors, and evaluate the effectiveness of specific images in communicating specific messages. Ask students to justify their inferences and interpretations of images in writing and share in small groups. Students can then create their own visual representations for their classmates to read and interpret. Digital Literacy 21st-century learners use these tools effectively to capture, collect, assemble, and create information useful to meaning making.
Educators must gather appropriate Web sites and digital resources to provide students with physical and intellectual access. Digital Literacy Strategy After engaging with literature or information, use Web 2.0 tools, such as Wordle, Wordsift, VoiceThread, wikis, and blogs, to create and present. Self-evaluate the digital products using a rubric and respond and evaluate other students work as well.
Textual Literacy Reading, writing, analyzing, and evaluating textual works involves aspect of information literacy, the skills needed to find and use information. It is critical for SLMS to make texts accessible for all learners regardless of their abilities or disabilities. Textual Literacy Strategy Share different languages and representations that support textual literacy for diverse readers. Read and analyze works in multiple
languages, including Braille and sign language. Compare audio versions with printed text. Highlight and enlarge text for visually- impaired learners. Technological Literacy To be an effective 21st century contributing member of society, students must master the various technologies to read, write and communicate. Digital natives gravitate toward and naturally respond to multiple literacies
such as text messages, tweets, blog postings, YouTube videos, and more. Technological Literacy Strategy Discuss and practice netiquette, ethical, and safe use of technological tools and resources. Examples: Social networking (Facebook, Twitter) Online communication (email, Skype) Collaboration (wikis, blogs) Intellectual property and copyright Integrating Multiple Literacies SLMS can make a positive impact on
students' engagement with texts and reading development by working with other educators to integrate multiple literacies into the classroom curriculum. These literacies are critical learning objectives for 21st-century learners. AASL Standards for the 21st Century Learner Indicators Addressed 1.1.4 Find, evaluate, and select appropriate sources to answer questions. 1.1.6 Read, view, and listen for information presented in any format (e.g., textual, visual, media, digital) in order to make
inferences and gather meaning. 1.1.8 Demonstrate mastery of technology tools for accessing information and pursuing inquiry. AASL Indicators Addressed (continued) 1.2.3 Demonstrate creativity by using multiple resources and formats. 1.3.5 Use information technology responsibly. 2.1.6 Use the writing process, media and visual literacy, and technology skills to create products that express new understandings.
3.1.2 Participate and collaborate as members of a social and intellectual network of learners. AASL Indicators Addressed (continued) 3.1.4 Use technology and other information tools to organize and display knowledge and understanding in ways that others can view, use, and assess. 3.3.4 Create products that apply to authentic, real-world contexts.
4.1.7 Use social networks and information tools to gather and share information. Works Cited American Association of School Librarians. 2009. Empowering Learners: Guidelines for 21st Century School Libraries. Chicago: American Library Association. _____. 2009. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action. Chicago: American Library Association. Braden, R. A., and J. A. Horton. 1982. Identifying the Theoretical Foundations of Visual Literacy. Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging 2, 37-42. Center for Media Literacy. n.d. Media Literacy: A Definition and More. (accessed June 30, 2009).
Gilster, P. 1997. Digital Literacy. New York: Wiley. National Council of Teachers of English. 2009. 21st Century Literacies. (accessed June 30, 2009). For Further Study: Mokhtari, K., A. Kymes, and P. Edwards. 2008. Assessing the New Literacies of Online Reading Comprehension: An Informative Interview With W. Ian O'Byrne, Lisa Zawilinski, J. Greg McVerry, and Donald J. Leu at the University of Connecticut. 2008. Reading Teacher 62, no. 4, 354-357. State Educational Technology Directors Association, Technology Literacy Assessment Group. Technology Literacy. (accessed June 30, 2009). Zmuda, A., and V. H. Harada. 2009. Librarians as Learning Specialists: Meeting the Learning Imperative for the 21st Century. Libraries Unlimited.
See also SLMS Role in Reading Toolkit: Annotated Bibliography and Web 2.0 Tools
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