What is Good Education for Young Children? History of Early Education Friedrich Froebel (1840) found the first German kindergarten that was based on: Free-choice activities Creativity Social participation Motor expression
Susan Blow (1873 St. Louis, US) opened first public kindergarten based in Froebels theories Maria Montessori (1907 Italy) opened childrens house to care for children who were on the streets while their parents at work. She believed on: Self-learning Self-correcting materials
McMillan sisters (1911) England opened open-air nursery school. They believed in: Outdoor play Good health Nourishing food Medical care Small group learning Building independence and self-esteem John Dewey, US (1990 progressive
education). He developed Laboratory School at the University of Chicago. He believed: Education should branch from the childrens interests and real experiences Help children think critically Meet all the childrens needs physical, social, emotional and cognitive The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)
As the nursery education began to grow it the U.S., in 1925 Patty Smith Hill organized the meeting to discuss issues of concern and in 1929, National Association of Nursery Education was found and now known as NAEYC: Provides membership Annual conference Has developed an accreditation system to ensure high-quality standards in early childhood programs
Theoretical Foundations of Early Childhood Freuds Psychosexual Theory: Based on Freuds belief, the mind consist of 3 basic parts: Id (infancy) basis of pleasure principals; the basic biological needs and desires (needs have to be met immediately) Ego (1yr)-Basis of reality; rational part of personality, emerges in early infancy to redirect the ids impulses so that they are discharged in acceptable
ways Superego-Basis of conscience (develop conscience, morality) Freud Developed psychosexual theory based on his work w/patients. Freud strongly believed that sexual desire is the driving force behind human development. Eriksons Psychosocial Theory
(1902-1994) He was trained as a psychoanalyst in Freuds circle. He questioned the rationality of Freuds psychosexual theory Focuses on social and cultural environment and not sexuality Development continued throughout lifespan and not limited to first six years as Freud
Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy) In this stage, the babies learn (or fail to learn) that the world around them is a safe and reliable place and that other people respond to their needs. For example, infants who cry and get response, who are fed when they are hungry or comforted when they are hurt, develop trust. Infants who dont get respond to their needs, they develop mistrust. Therefore, teachers should establish a reliable
and safe atmosphere that reinforces the trust. What to Do Develop a positive relationship with each child Follow a consistent schedule Carry through on announced plans and promises Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
(ages 1-3) During this stage, children learn the skills of holding on and letting go, which associated with the drive to become independent and to express this independence by making choices and decisions. Children develop autonomy or independence when adults give them a chance to do things on their own.
When adults make excessive demands or being judgmental that devalues childrens efforts, they develop shame and doubt. What to Do Set up an environment where children can find and return materials on their own Provide appropriate play materials that support and challenge childrens abilities Help children express their feelings in
constructive ways Provide appropriate real-world responsibilities and jobs Encourage children to see tasks through to completion Initiative vs. Guilt (ages 3-5). Initiative is an interest in making things. During this stage, children become more interested in doing things, and in being part
of the group. When adults underestimate childrens work, guilt sets in. Teachers should create an environment in the classroom that encourages children to experiment, explore, and pursue their own interests. What to Do Offer children opportunities to make choices Provide children with ample opportunities for
creative expression Allow children freedom to explore the environment Permit children to get messy during play Industry vs Inferiority (ages 6-12) Children learn the knowledge and skills
required by their culture If child is taught well and encouraged, he/she build enthusiasm for learning and builds confidence If child who is unsuccessful at learning is likely to experience dependency Constructive Theory People actively construct reality in the mind as they interact with objects & people in the world
1. Jean Piaget 2. Lev Vygotsky Piagets Stage Theory- focused on how cognition changes as the child interacts with the environment. Sensorimotor Stage (birth-age 2). During this stage, babies learn through their senses. They put a book in their mouth, kick a mobile
with their feet, and pull at the string on a wheeled toy to discover what these objects can do. Eventually they learn that the book has a cover and pages, that kicking the mobile will cause it to spin, and that pulling on a string toy will bring it to them. Preoperational Stage (age 2 5). During this stage, children do not use logic, they go by what they see and do. They also tend to see the world from their
own point of view. They believe everyone thinks and feels as they do. Piaget calls this quality egocentrism. Piagets belief is that children construct understanding based on the developmentally appropriate selection of materials and activities, offer choices, comments, and questions for individual children. Teachers must give children many opportunities to work with concrete objects and to discover the logic of how these objects behave. Concrete Operation Stage (ages 7-11).
Children are developing Concepts of: Numbers, relationships, and processes, thinking problems Children learn through use of materials Manipulation of material Children use logic Vygotskys Social Constructivist Theory- views cognitive development as a social and cultural process. Social - children learn through interactions with their peers and adults
Cultural - what we need to know is determined by the culture they live in. Two Vygotskys ideas: Zone of proximal development (ZPD) skills children can accomplish on their own Scaffolding skills advances as assistance provided by adults or more knowledgeable peer Bronfenbrenners Ecological Theory -focuses on multiple influences that shape behavior. Five levels that play a part in human development:
Microsystem-Immediate environment (family, friends, teachers) Mesosystem-Interconnections between microsystems (if parents work hours are long, that effects their relationships with their children) Exosystem-institutions that have indirect effects on development (schools, media) Macrosystem-Cultural beliefs and values Chronosystem- Changes that occur overtime Learning and the Brain
Finding from research on learning and the brain shows that the human brain grows as a result of learning and experience. When a new skill or concept is learned, a brain connection is formed. For a
connection to become permanent, learning needs to be reinforced over and over. Connections that are not used eventually disappear. Emotions play a significant role in learning. Stress can destroy brain cells and make learning more difficult. Nutrition,
health, and physical activity affect learning. A well-balanced diet, sufficient sleep, and plenty of exercise support healthy brain growth. There are sensitive periods when the brain is at its peak for learning. During the early years, children are most receptive to learning emotional control, forming attachments to others, and acquiring language and music skills.
From Theory to Practice Types of Early Childhood Programs CCRC Child Care Resource Center. It provides access to quality child care. This agency is under the LA County Office of Education. It is a national, federally funded program Compensatory Programs Head Start (preschool) and Early Head Start (infant/toddler
1994) is the best known of the compensatory program. It created in 1965 for the children from families with low income. It provides comprehensive education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services Center-Based Care Available year round for 8 or more hours a day while parents are working or in school Centers that serve low-income families are
state/federal funded Small, individually owned centers are usually for-profit Infant and Toddler Care ages 6 weeks to 3years School age child care ages 5 to 11years. The program provides before and after school day for children of working parents Montessori School require their teachers to undergo training specifically related to
Montessori philosophy. Children work with specially prepared materials in a wellorganized environment designed to stimulate individual learning Laboratory Schools are connected to the universities/colleges. Its a good place for students to begin their teaching Family Child Care where care provided in the providers own home with a smaller group of various ages (infant-school age) and
flexible hours Elementary Grades K-3 Teachers should be aware of the No Child left Behind Act of 2001. Use research-based learning standards Assess children's reading, math and science annually Early Childhood Programs in California Title 22 and Title 5 Comparisons
Private Programs Licensed under Title 22 Department of Social Services Health and Safety Teacher must have 12 units Ratio: one teacher to 12 preschool children, with an assistant 15 children Private Non-Profit Money comes from tuition, fundraising, subsidies Left over money goes back into the program
Monitored by a Board of Directors Does not pay income tax Private Proprietary (For Profit) Money comes from tuition, fundraising, subsidies Left over money goes to the owner Monitored by the owner Pays income tax as a business Publicly Funded (Subsidized) Programs
Licensed under Title 22 Department of Social Services Health and Safety and Title 5 Education Code Teacher must have a California Child Development Permit (24 units of Child Development, 16 units of General Education, and experience) Ratio: one teacher and two assistants for every 24 preschool children Funded through tax dollars, both State and Federal Left over money goes back to the program
Fees based on a sliding scale according to the parents income Monitored by Government
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