Why is CMV a good investigation site? Why is CMV a good investigation site? Accessible - CMV is 55 miles away from school 70 mins by coach. The river characteristics change considerably in a short period of time. There are human interventions along the river e.g. channel straightening. The river is long enough to have a variety of investigation points. The investigation sites along the Cound Brook are easily accessible and so risks are reduced. The water level of the Cound Brook is safe for investigations with a low risk of drowning.
Examples of questions: State the title of your fieldwork enquiry in which physical geography data were collected. Explain the advantage(s) of the location(s) used for your fieldwork enquiry. (2) [2 marks: Potential risks when completing fieldwork. Before we took you out to Carding Mill Valley a risk assessment had to be carried out. This is where possible risks where identified and precautionary measures put in place to keep people safe. The exam board expect you to be able to identify these risks and explain how you would reduce the risk to stay safe. Risk? Why? Precaution? What is sampling? SAMPLING = A means of collecting data that is
representative of a particular issue or subject area without actually having to record every bit of data. At Cardingmill Valley we would not have time to measure the width of every section of the river from the waterfall to the carpark. How did we combat this problem? We used point sampling or stratified sampling to collect our data. We identified 6 areas of the river to collect our data. Why would we do this? clinometer Leave this section blank for now. List all equipment you used. Leave this section blank for now. Random, stratified,
biased, systematic or pragmatic. Leave this section blank for now. Method Positive Negative Improvements Width Easy to complete as only 1 piece of equipment is needed a tape measure. On very wide channel sections (5&6) the tape measure bowed in the middle. This gives inaccurate results.
Repeat measuring three times to get an accurate measurement. Have a third person to support the middle of the tape measure to get accurate results. Depth Easy to complete as once the width has been measured out the depth is easy to measure. Dividing the width /3 was tricky. The water rode up the ruler if the ruler was placed in the wrong direction. Use a calculator to work out the depth intervals. Always place the ruler in the channel sideways so that you get an accurate result. Velocity
Completing the test 3 times meant that we could get an average time. This allows for inaccurate data. The bamboo was easy to see and the method was easy to follow. Involved a lot of people. The lack of water in the channel meant that the bamboo got stuck behind rocks and it needed to be freed which gives inaccurate results. Also the bamboo did not travel in a straight line so may have travelled further than the 5m we measured out. Use a flowmeter to gain accurate results as the equipment measures the water flowing past a certain point. Method Width
Depth Velocity Method Were the results valid and reliable? How did the results help conclude overall linking to the conclusion? Improvemen t: The amount of times the propeller is turned is recorded on the black box. A timer is attached so you can time the propeller turns over a 30 second or 1 min time period.
A propeller is attached to a metal rod. The propeller turns when water flows past it. The faster the water the more the propeller turns. Types of data presentation. Visual- diagrams, sketches and photographs. Graphical- line graphs, bar charts, pie charts, pictograms, histograms, divided bar charts, scattergraphs, population pyramids and dispersion graphs. Cartographic- sketch maps, choropleth maps, isoline maps, dot maps. Desire lines on maps, proportional symbols located onto base maps and flow lines on maps. What type of graph is this: A. Line graph B. Isoline graph C. Desire line map D.Bar chart.
Line Graph Used to show continuous changes over a period of time. Continous data: Temp Weight /mass Prices Months / time Distance What type of graph is this: A. Histogram B. Bar chart C. Divided Bar chart D.Pie chart Bar Chart Used to compare quantities or frequencies in different categories What is the purpose of a pie chart? a. Shows percentages as a
circle, divided into segments b. Used to compare quantities or a. Shows percentages as a frequencies in different categories circle, divided into segments c. Use to compare quantities or frequencies in continuous data. NO GAPS IN BETWEEN BARS! d. Used to show the relationship between two sets of data What type of graph is this: A. Barchart B. Symbols chart C. Pictogram D.Histogram Pictogra m Uses symbols or icons to compare data, needs a key! What type of graph is this: A. Line graph B. Histogram
C. Divided bar chart D.Bar chart. Histogra m Use to compare quantities or frequencies in continuous data. NO GAPS IN BETWEEN BARS! What type of graph is this: A. Line graph B. Scatter graph C. Desire line map D.Cross diagram Scatter Graph Used to show the relationship between two sets of data Histogram Which graph is Best for.. Compares
how much food atocountry imports exports: The distance people have travelled toover shop invs Stafford: How people have travelled Stafford to shop e.g. car, Shows global temperature
change time.: Show pebble shape in % form. Comparing the relationship vetween gradient train, bike, walk: and speed A. Bar chart A. Bar Bar chart chartof a river: A. A. A. BarBar chart
chart B. Pictogram B. Pictogram Line graph B. B. B. Pictogram Line graph C. Scatter C. Histogram C. Scatter Scatter graph graph C. C. C. Histogram Scatter graph D. Pie chart D. Pie chart
D. Pie Pie chart chart D. D. D. PiePie chart chart Pie chart Bar chart Pictogram Scattergraph Line graph Located cross sections of the sites along the Cound Brook Why is this an appropriate method of data presentation? Challenge: How could we improve this method?
Visual. Graphical Cartographic Photo Site 1 How can these photos help us prove / Analysisdisprove our hypothesis? Site 3 Site 5 Challenge: 1. List site 1, 3 and 5 and write a description about each site - Width , depth , velocity. Are these photos accurate? How do you know? 2. Did they match the Bradshaw model? How would this influence your results?
Relationship between data sets Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Site 5 Depth 660 540 900 620 460 Velocit y 25.9 29.7 13.3 15.4 14.5 Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Site 5 Width 200 170 155 370 400 Velocit y 25.9 29.7
13.3 15.4 14.5 Complete the graph and plot on site 35 30 25 velocity(secs) 20 15 Does this show a Positive correlation? 10 5 0 100 Depth and velocity of the 5 sites along the Cound Brook 4
35 30 25 20 velocity(secs) Complete the graph and plot on site 2 Width and velocity of the 5 sites along the Cound Brook 15 10 5 150 200 250 300 350 400
450 Width (cm) 0 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Depth (cm) WHAT WE SHOULD HAVE FOUND! Overall there is a positive correlation and as the river widens downstream the faster it flows. This is because the river has greater energy to erode the banks laterally through hydraulic action and abrasion.
WHAT WE SHOULD HAVE FOUND! Overall there is a positive correlation and as the river deepens downstream the faster it flows. This is because tributaries have joined the river adding more discharge (water). There is less friction along the river bed as erosion has reduced the size of the Width WHAT WE SHOULD HAVE FOUND! Overall there is a positive correlation and as the river widens downstream the faster it flows. This is because the river has greater energy to erode the banks laterally through hydraulic action and abrasion. The width does increase as expected in the Bradshaw Model. But velocity does NOT increase. Therefore the relationship is not what we expected to find (negative not positive). Depth WHAT WE SHOULD HAVE FOUND! Overall there is a positive correlation and as the river deepens downstream the faster it flows. This is because tributaries have
joined the river adding more discharge (water). There is less friction along the river bed as erosion has reduced the size of the sediment. Results dont match the Bradshaw Model. Depth and velocity do not increase as we progress downstream. The data is unclear about the general trend so there is no correlation. Reasons for this? The velocity was very high in sites 1 and 2 due to the steeper gradient. The discharge was very low on the day we visited. We only measured a very small proportion of the upper course of the river. Which of the following methods are the most helpful in presenting your data? Why? Located Cross sections (river profiles) were helpful because. Photo analysis were / were not helpful because. Scatter graphs were / were not helpful
because. Mark Scheme 6 marks The command word Assess so candidates must provide an informed judgement relating to the overall effectiveness of their techniques. Answers may refer to: Types of presentation techniques Data presented Variables involved and how represented, such as units and values on axis, scales employed, categories used, sectors of graphs such as pie charts, cross sections etc. applied data so that it could be presented on a map to show variation and distribution. Features within the presentation techniques will be discussed in terms of effectiveness in displaying results; sectors of bar charts accurately showing proportion, data plots on scatter graphs clearly indicating trends in relationships between variables. Over all judgements in relation to the features and the effectiveness of techniques used will be clear and substantiated. Level 3 Detailed Overall effectiveness discussed of named presentation techniques. Substantiated evaluation.
Level 2 Clear Clear statements not fully developed for effectiveness. Level 1 Basic Evaluation comments are limited and vague. Effectiveness is generic or incomplete. Examples of methods may not be provided. Rock lines along sites 3-5. Aimed to slow the river down in order to reduce the risk of flooding in Church Stretton. The velocity was affected greatly especially at the lower sites due to the intervals of the lines being greater making the velocity results not fully match the BM. Rocks can be moved especially during floods so not permanent. Old concrete bridge remains of the walls at site 3.
Narrowed the river and prevented the sides getting eroded so the width was set. Due t it being upstream it didnt affect the results too much so the results still represented the Bradshaw model. Human intervention Small weir at site 4. Velocity control structure which cannot be altered does slow the river down but doesnt trap sediment as much as the rock lines. WHAT WHERE HOW Straightening and narrowing of the river between site 3 and 4 at the visitors centre. Width and depth here do not match the BM as the channel has been artificially changed. This
would also have an affect on the velocity of the river. Evaluation How did methods affect the results and therefore the conclusion? Width and Depth measuring -Potential problems Velocity recording - Potential Problem Human adaptions to the flow Low rainfall so river levels low How might this have impacted the results? How might this have impacted the results? How might this have impacted the conclusions? How might this have impacted the conclusions? How would you improve it for next time and why?
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