Cryptography and Network Security Chapter 5 Fifth Edition by William Stallings Lecture slides by Lawrie Brown Chapter 5 Advanced Encryption Standard "It seems very simple." "It is very simple. But if you don't know what the key is it's virtually indecipherable."

Talking to Strange Men, Ruth Rendell AES Origins clear a replacement for DES was needed

have theoretical attacks that can break it have demonstrated exhaustive key search attacks can use Triple-DES but slow, has small blocks US NIST issued call for ciphers in 1997 15 candidates accepted in Jun 98 5 were shortlisted in Aug-99 Rijndael was selected as the AES in Oct-2000

issued as FIPS PUB 197 standard in Nov-2001 The AES Cipher - Rijndael designed by Rijmen-Daemen in Belgium has 128/192/256 bit keys, 128 bit data an iterative rather than Feistel cipher

processes data as block of 4 columns of 4 bytes operates on entire data block in every round designed to have: resistance against known attacks

speed and code compactness on many CPUs design simplicity AES Encryption Process AES Structure

data block of 4 columns of 4 bytes is state key is expanded to array of words has 9/11/13 rounds in which state undergoes:

byte substitution (1 S-box used on every byte) shift rows (permute bytes between groups/columns) mix columns (subs using matrix multiply of groups) add round key (XOR state with key material) view as alternating XOR key & scramble data bytes initial XOR key material & incomplete last round with fast XOR & table lookup implementation AES Structure Some Comments on AES

1. 2. an iterative rather than Feistel cipher key expanded into array of 32-bit words 1. four words form round key in each round 4 different stages are used as shown 4. has a simple structure 5. only AddRoundKey uses key

6. AddRoundKey a form of Vernam cipher 7. each stage is easily reversible 8. decryption uses keys in reverse order 9. decryption does recover plaintext 10. final round has only 3 stages 3. Substitute Bytes

a simple substitution of each byte uses one table of 16x16 bytes containing a permutation of all 256 8-bit values each byte of state is replaced by byte indexed by row (left 4-bits) & column (right 4-bits) eg. byte {95} is replaced by byte in row 9 column 5

which has value {2A} S-box constructed using defined transformation of values in GF(28) designed to be resistant to all known attacks Substitute Bytes Substitute Bytes Example Shift Rows

a circular byte shift in each each 1st row is unchanged 2nd row does 1 byte circular shift to left

3rd row does 2 byte circular shift to left 4th row does 3 byte circular shift to left decrypt inverts using shifts to right since state is processed by columns, this step permutes bytes between the columns Shift Rows Mix Columns each column is processed separately each byte is replaced by a value

dependent on all 4 bytes in the column effectively a matrix multiplication in GF(28) using prime poly m(x) =x8+x4+x3+x+1 Mix Columns Mix Columns Example AES Arithmetic uses arithmetic in the finite field GF(28) with irreducible polynomial

m(x) = x8 + x4 + x3 which is (100011011) + x + 1 or {11b} e.g. {02} {87} mod {11b} = (1 0000 1110) mod {11b} = (1 0000 1110) xor (1 0001 1011) = (0001 0101)

Mix Columns can express each col as 4 equations decryption requires use of inverse matrix

to derive each new byte in col with larger coefficients, hence a little harder have an alternate characterisation each column a 4-term polynomial with coefficients in GF(28) and polynomials multiplied modulo (x4+1)

coefficients based on linear code with maximal distance between codewords Add Round Key XOR state with 128-bits of the round key again processed by column (though effectively a series of byte operations) inverse for decryption identical

since XOR own inverse, with reversed keys designed to be as simple as possible a form of Vernam cipher on expanded key requires other stages for complexity / security Add Round Key

AES Round AES Key Expansion takes 128-bit (16-byte) key and expands into array of 44/52/60 32-bit words start by copying key into first 4 words then loop creating words that depend on values in previous & 4 places back in 3 of 4 cases just XOR these together 1st word in 4 has rotate + S-box + XOR round

constant on previous, before XOR 4th back AES Key Expansion Key Expansion Rationale designed to resist known attacks design criteria included knowing part key insufficient to find many more invertible transformation

fast on wide range of CPUs use round constants to break symmetry diffuse key bits into round keys enough non-linearity to hinder analysis simplicity of description

AES Example Key Expansion AES Example Encryption AES Example Avalanche

AES Decryption AES decryption is not identical to encryption since steps done in reverse but can define an equivalent inverse cipher with steps as for encryption but using inverses of each step with a different key schedule

works since result is unchanged when swap byte substitution & shift rows swap mix columns & add (tweaked) round key AES Decryption Implementation Aspects can efficiently implement on 8-bit CPU

byte substitution works on bytes using a table of 256 entries shift rows is simple byte shift add round key works on byte XORs mix columns requires matrix multiply in GF(28) which works on byte values, can be simplified to use table lookups & byte XORs

Implementation Aspects can efficiently implement on 32-bit CPU redefine steps to use 32-bit words can precompute 4 tables of 256-words then each column in each round can be computed using 4 table lookups + 4 XORs at a cost of 4Kb to store tables

designers believe this very efficient implementation was a key factor in its selection as the AES cipher Summary have considered: the AES selection process the details of Rijndael the AES cipher

looked at the steps in each round the key expansion implementation aspects