Worksheet: the heart - University of Washington

Worksheet: the heart Note to instructors: This worksheet represents a way that I have taught this material, which incorporates figures created by others. I have cited these figures sources, but I have not formally obtained permission to use the figures in this way. As far as Im concerned, youre welcome to modify this worksheet or use it as is; if you do so, please continue to cite the sources of these figures and be aware that the figures inclusion here may or may not be permissible under fair use doctrine. --Greg Crowther, Everett Community College ([email protected]) Goals: Understand how conduction of electrical signals through the heart can be detected as an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). Understand the relationships between ECGs, blood pressures, blood flows, and the opening and closing of cardiac valves. References/Sources: Patrick J. P. Brown, Anatomy & Physiology: A Guided Inquiry, 2016

Murray Jensen et al., POGIL Activities for Introductory Anatomy and Physiology Courses, 2015 1 Part A: Electrical activity of the heart A1. List the specialized cardiac structures through which electrical signals spread during a heartbeat, in the order in which they are depolarized. A2. Underline the structure above where the spread of depolarization is slowed down the most. Why does this slow-down help the heart perform its function? (Hint: what would happen if the atria and ventricles contracted simultaneously?) 2

The picture at right is an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), as detected with electrodes on the surface of the body. A3. Label the X axis and Y axis. What could the units be for each? A4. Is this a direct readout of a heart muscle cells membrane potential? (Hint: where are the electrodes?) A5. Label the P wave, QRS complex, and T wave and list which chambers of the heart are depolarizing or repolarizing in each case. Image: remotea.com 3

A6. Why is the QRS complex generally much larger than the P wave? A7. The R-R interval can be used to calculate heart rate. Label the R-R interval above. If the R-R interval is 0.8 seconds, what is the heart rate in beats per minute? A8. Electrocardiograms can vary for many reasons. The magnitudes and directions of the deflections and the time intervals between components can all vary, and these variations can indicate cardiac problems, making the ECG a valuable clinical tool. Lets explore a few cases. 4 5

Part B: Cardiac valves, blood pressure, and blood flow Heart valves prevent the backflow of blood and thus keep blood flowing in one direction. Heart valves open and close, somewhat like swinging double doors, because of the pressure on the two sides. When pressure on the upstream side is greater, the doors are open. When pressure on the downstream side is greater, the doors are closed. Note: a chamber in this diagram could be a heart chamber OR a blood vessel. M. Jensen et al. (2014) 6

B1. When the pressure in Chamber A is greater than the pressure in Chamber B (PA > PB), is valve 1 open or closed? B2. When the pressure in Chamber C is less than the pressure in Chamber B (PC < PA), is valve 2 open or closed? B3. What relationship between pressures in Chambers A, B, and C results in valves 1 and 2 both being closed? B4. If Chamber A represents the left atrium and Chamber B represents the left ventricle, name the part of the heart represented by the following elements of the diagram above. a. Valve 1 = b. Valve 2 = c. Chamber C = B5. Using your answer to B4, what do you predict would happen in a persons circulatory system if Valve 2 did not close completely? 7

B6. When the left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta, is left ventricular pressure greater than, less than, or equal to aortic pressure? B7. Is the aortic (left semilunar) valve open during this time (Q6)? B8. Predict whether the bicuspid (mitral, or left AV) valve is open during this time (B6). Explain. B9. When the ventricles are filling with blood, is the blood pressure in the left ventricle pressure greater than the blood pressure in the left atrium? B10. Is the bicuspid (mitral) valve open or closed during this time (B9)? B11. Predict if the aortic valve is open or closed during this time (B9). Explain. 8

Part C: The Wiggers diagram The Wiggers diagram (on the next slide) combines several different types of cardiac information: Mechanical contraction/relaxation Blood pressure Ventricular volume ECG Heart sounds

It can be intimidating to look at all at once, but we will go through it piece by piece. First notice that the Wiggers diagram includes an ECG, which weve already discussed. So that part should already make sense. Label this part ECG. 9 Patrick J.P. Brown (2016) 10 Next, lets connect the hearts electrical events (depolarization and repolarization) to its mechanical behavior (contraction and relaxation). When a chamber of the heart depolarizes, it will contract, decreasing the

volume of that chamber. Find the part of the Wiggers diagram that indicates the contraction of the ventricles. Another word for contraction is systole. C1. Are the contractions of the ventricles already labeled? (If not, label them.) C2. How about the contractions of the atria? C3. What does diastole mean? C4. Compare the timing of the atria and ventricles electrical depolarizations and their mechanical contractions. Does a depolarization occur over the same time interval as a contraction, or does one follow the other? Is this consistent with what you know about the activation of muscle cells? 11 C5. Now lets connect the mechanical events (contraction and relaxation) to

chamber volumes. a. When the ventricle contracts, what happens to its volume of blood? b. When does most of the change in volume occur, according to the diagram? c. What do you think happens to the atrial volume during atrial contraction? C6. Now lets connect the changes in chamber volumes to changes in blood pressure. a. When a contracting chamber reduces its volume, what (if anything) will happen to the pressure on the blood in that chamber? b. When a relaxing chamber increases its volume, what (if anything) will happen to the pressure on the blood in that chamber? C7. Find the atrial and ventricular pressures in the Wiggers diagram. Do the pressure increases and decreases occur where you would expect, based on C6? 12

C8. Finally, lets connect blood pressures to the heart valves, remembering the earlier slides about valves. a. Under what conditions should the aortic semilunar (SL) valve be open? when the ________________ pressure is higher than the _______________ pressure b. Under what conditions should the left atrioventricular (AV) valve be open? when the ________________ pressure is higher than the _______________ pressure c. Look on the Wiggers diagram for indications of when these valves open and close. Do they match your predictions in (a) and (b)? 13

C9. The heart sounds, lubb (S1) and dubb or dupp (S2), are shown at the bottom of the Wiggers diagram. Guess what causes these sounds, then check your book or the Internet to see if you are right. Sound Guess at reason for sound Verification of reason Lubb (S1) Dupp (S2) Now take a final look back at the Wiggers diagram. Note that we were able to navigate our way through this very complicated figure by

connecting electrical activity (ECG) to contractile activity and volumes, connecting volumes to pressures, and connecting pressures to valve activities. Hurray -- you have conquered the Wiggers diagram! 14

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