World History II SOL Review - Staunton City Schools

World History II SOL Review - Staunton City Schools

World History II SOL Review World War II and the Cold War Page 490-518 Causes of World War II Totalitarian Dictators

Nationalism U.S. Isolationism and Pacifism Treaty of Versailles Failure of the League of

Nations Appeasement Causes of World War II Battles and Events of World War II Event/Battle Date

Purpose The Invasion of Poland 9/1939 Take over Europe and Poland

The Fall of France 6/1940 Conquer France, Western Europe

Battle of Britain 9/1940 Destroy British air power and air industry Invasion of the

Soviet Union 6/1941 Living space and resources Outcome Britain had previously warned Hitler that any aggression towards Poland would not be tolerated.

Hitler ignored the threat, invaded Poland successfully, but found itself now at war with Britain and France. Having either allied itself or conquered many other neighboring countries, Germany looked towards France. Germany won control of France and Hitler had almost all of Europe under his control. Hitlers next move would be eliminate any threat from Great Britain. Bombed day and night, the British people refused to give in to Hitlers Luftwaffe. Britain won ending a threatened German invasion of Britain. Russia wins, aided by a harsh Soviet winter

Battles and Events of World War II Event/Battle Date Purpose Pearl Harbor

12/7/ 1941 Destroy American military power D-Day (Allied Invasion of Normandy)

6/6/ 1944 Land troops in France to then invade Germany Yalta Conference

2/1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki 8/1945 Outcome Brings US into the war

Since Hitlers German army controlled almost all of Europe, it was difficult to get troops onto the continent. However, led by Dwight E. Eisenhower, the Allies planned and successfully carried out the invasion of Normandy, France. With the Allied victory, they can now fight back and invade Germany. Decide what to M.A.G.I.C. do with Europe (see M.A.G.I.C slides) after WWII Swiftly end the

war with Japan In an effort to quickly end the war with Japan and save American lives, President Truman decided to drop two atomic bombs, one each on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan surrenders. T The shades of purple show the

areas either allied with or occupied/ controlled by the Axis powers. The green areas represent the Allied powers. Now do you understand the

significance of the invasion of Normandy? Fall of France Attack on Pearl Harbor Quote by Winston Churchill in reference to the pilots of the Royal Air Force (RAF) who

were defending the British people during the Battle of Britain. June 6, 1944: D-Day The Invasion of Normandy The invasion was led by this man, General Dwight D.

Eisenhower Allied soldiers approaching the coast of Normandy The Atomic Bomb Important People Eisenhower: American general in charge of D-Day invasion

Roosevelt: American president at the outbreak of the war Truman: American President at the end of the war Makes the decision to drop the atomic bomb Churchill: British Prime Minister Stalin:

Soviet Dictator Hirohito: Japanese emperor Tojo: Japanese general Hitler: Nazi German leader

MacArthur: American general, Philippine campaign and postwar Japan Marshall: American general, top advisor to Roosevelt The Holocaust Work Will Set you Free Events leading up to the Holocaust

The Holocaust is partially a result of thousands of years of hatred of Jews 1. Totalitarianism + nationalism + industrialization belief in the Holocaust 2. European legacy of anti-Semitism 3. defeat in World War I and the Great Depression blamed on the Jews 4. Hitlers belief in the master race Aryan 5. Final Solution systematic attempt to remove all Jews from the face of the Earth death camps, gas chambers

Genocide: the systematic attempt to eliminate a group of people from the face of the earth The map to the right and the next slide show other examples of genocide Outcomes of World War II

Loss of empires by European powers Establishment of two major powers in the world: The United States and the U.S.S.R. War crimes trials Division of Europe: Iron Curtain The Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Marshall Plan Formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact

Outcomes of World War II Loss of empires by European powers Establishment of two major powers in the world:____________ _________________________________ ______________________ Division of Europe: ____________ _____________________________ ______________________________ ____________________________ ___________________________________________________

___________________________________________________ And thats how the U.S. used M.A.G.I.C. to fix West Gem any and Japan after World War II. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE ORGANIZATIONS

The United Nations Somewhat like the League of Nations, the United Nations was formed to prevent future wars. The UN has more power than the League of Nations did. And yes, the United States is a member.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Defensive Alliance (1949) Western Europe United States, Canada Resist invasion by Soviet Union Collective security Attack on one is an

attack on all Warsaw Pact Defensive pact between Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellite nations Response to NATO Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Established and adopted by members of the United Nations Provided a code of conduct for the treatment of people under the protection of their government 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Follow Up Questions What was the Marshall Plan? Who was Douglas MacArthur? Identify at least two things he did.

After WWII, the Allies limited the militaries of Japan and Germany. How was the security of these countries guaranteed? How was the treatment of the defeated powers different in WWII than it was in WWI? How was the U.N. different from the League of Nations? Identify the Warsaw Pact and NATO. What are these examples of? Have they caused problems in the past? What is a satellite nation? What was the UDHR? Why was it created?

THE COLD WAR Beginning of the Cold War (1945 1989) Definition Period of time between 1945 and 1989 or 1991 when the United States and U.S.S.R. faced off in a clash of two different ideologies. Intense competition for

control of the world Cold War (1945 1989) United States represented democracy free market economic system individual freedoms

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics totalitarian government communist (socialist) economic system no freedoms Yalta February 1945

Big Three Franklin D. Roosevelt (U.S.), Joseph Stalin (U.S.S.R.), and Winston Churchill (G.B.) met to discuss the future of postwar Europe The Big Three Post War Germany

Big Three agree to divide Germany into four sections -- British -- American -- Russian -- French Post War Germany Original plan to

unite all four zones One nation Berlin capital Russians refuse Uh-oh West Germany Britain, France, and the United States unite their zones

Western zones Resume selfgovernment Liberal democracy Pro-United States Capitalist Russian dominated zone Eastern zones -- Puppet regime controlled by the U.S.S.R. satellites

-- Communist/totalitarian government -- Pro-Soviet -- Communist/command economy East Germany Berlin Located in East Germany

Former capital also divided among four allied powers Located in Russian zone West Berlin capital of West Germany East Berlin Capital of East Germany Eastern and Central Europe

Stalin promised free elections in Eastern and Central Europe at Yalta in 1945 Post-War Occupied by Soviet Union After elections all become communist Satellite Nations Puppets controlled by Soviet Union

Iron Curtain nicknamed by Winston Churchill in a famous speech Marshall=MONEY Marshall Plan (1947) United States offers financial aid to Europe Eastern Europe refuses

(why?!) Rebuilds Western European economies Stop spread of communism through friendship (how?!) What does this cartoon mean? Recipients: Marshall Plan 1. Who gets most

of the money? 2. Why do those countries receive money? 3. What countries do not receive money? 4. Why? COLD WAR CONFLICTS

Truman Doctrine (1947) Containment of Communism Goal is to resist spread not roll back communism Aid to Greece and Turkey Harry S. Truman Josef Stalin Space Race U.S. Government

goes crazy due to the successful launch of Soviet Union Sputnik First satellite Berlin Wall (1961) Berlin Wall (1961) Separates Soviet East

Berlin from Western Zone Attempt to prevent flight of East Germans to West Symbol of Cold War Construction of Berlin wall, 1961 Berlin Wall

Berlin Wall Checkpoint Charlie gateway between East and West Berlin Nuclear Threat Soviet Union and the United States matched nuclear weaponry during the 1950s Threat of nuclear war

ever present U.S.S.R. uses espionage to quickly copy U.S. nuclear power Nuclear Threat President Eisenhower adopted a policy of massive retaliation to deter any nuclear strike by the Soviets.

Theory of Deterrence Increases threat of nuclear war Cold War Conflict: Cuba Khrushchev and Kennedy, 1962 13 Days Cuba (1950s)

In the 1950s, a U.S.-led dictator was in charge of Cuba Fidel Castro led a communist revolution that took over Cuba in the 1950s Many Cubans fled

U.S. wants control of Cuba back Why? Cuban Missile Crisis 1962

To get back at the U.S. and to gain financial support, Fidel Castro allies with the Soviet Union Soviet Union stationed missiles in Cuba U.S. spy planes catch the Soviets in the act Cuban Missile Crisis

Cuban Missile Crisis President Kennedy ordered the Soviets to remove their missiles Brinkmanship go right to the edge of nuclear war, but do not go over it for 13 days the world was on the brink of nuclear war quarantine of Cuba

(blockade) Khrushchev backs down nuclear war averted Closest U.S. and U.S.S.R. ever came to nuclear conflict! Fighting Communists in China Korea Vietnam

Chiang Kai-shek Nationalist China (island of Taiwan) China: Must Knows Conflicts and Revolution in Division of China into two nations at the end of the Chinese civil war Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) Communist China-Mainland China

Continuing conflict between the two Chinas Communist Chinas participation in Korean War Details Mao Zedong MOLE! Chinese Civil War (1945-1949) Mao! Nationalists Chiang Kai-Shek Communists Mao Zedong

VS! (Mao Tse-Tung) (Jiang Jieshi) Chinese Civil War (1945-49) After World War II, Nationalists vs. Communists Communists WIN!!! Mao Zedong takes over mainland

China Nationalists LOSE!!! Chiang Kai-Shek forced to move to Taiwan MOLE! Chinese Civil War (1945-1949) Mao!

Nationalists Chiang Kai-Shek Communists Mao Zedong VS! (Mao Tse-Tung) WINNER!!! (Jiang Jieshi) LOSER!!! United States Chinese Relations (1940s1950s) During WWII, U.S. allies with China (led by Chiang Kai-Shek) to defeat Japan. Soduring the Chinese Civil War, U.S. backs Nationalists and Chiang Kai-Shek (Why?) After the Chinese Civil War, U.S. supports Taiwan

(Nationalists!), and promises protection from an invasion by Communist China Communist China and Democratic Taiwan hate each other to this day, and U.S. is in the middle! U.S. Chinese Relations (1980s-present) Deng Xiaoping Four Modernizations transformed Chinese economy Poor agricultural communism

some capitalist industry Ex. Some private businesses, but majority of business are controlled by the govt Effects: Chinas market economy leads to rapid economic growth Effects: Still no political freedoms due to totalitarian/communist control

Deng Xiaoping held out the carrot that has led Western business into China! Cold War (1945 1989) Anti-Communist strategy of containment in Asia led to Americas involvement in two war Korean War Key Terms

Communist invasion 38th Parallel Douglas MacArthur Stalemate Vietnam War Key Terms Containment Domino Theory Ho Chi Minh

Korean War (1950-1953) American involvement in Korea reflected the policy of containment Post-World War II 38th parallel divided peninsula communist North democratic South

Korean War (1950 1953) June 25, 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea United Nations calls for member nations to help South Korea

Korean War (1950 1953) Cool History Fact: U.S. military desegregated during the Korean War first in U.S. history! United States and United Nations forces under General MacArthur push

invaders towards the Chinese border China enters war on side of North Korea War ends in a stalemate at the 38th parallel North Korea (communist) still divided from South Korea (democratic) today!

VIETNAM WAR Vietnam: Must Knows Role of French Imperialism Leadership of Ho Chi Minh Vietnam as a divided Nation Influence of the policy of containment

The United States and the Vietnam War Vietnam as a reunited communist country today Details NOTE: The SOL Test may not ask you about all the specific details given in the next few slides, but they help students to gain a better understanding of the Vietnam War. Vietnam War French Imperialism in

Southeast Asia leads to: Nationalist independence movements Ho Chi Minh communist leader of the Vietnamese nationalists against the French Vietminh League Seek independence following WWII

Vietnam War United States gives aid to French fighting the communists Why? Vietnam War Domino Theory U.S. theory developed as a result of

containment if one country falls to communism, then the surrounding countries will also become communist (fall over like dominoes) Vietnam Civil War Ho Chi Minh leads Vietminh to huge victory

over France Vietnam divided into North Vietnam (communist) and South Vietnam (democrat?) United States takes over helping South Vietnam due to domino theory President Kennedy in the early 1960s

Vietnam War South Vietnamese government seen as corrupt and unpopular Diem South Vietnamese leader really a brutal dictator Still receives U.S. support Self-immolation as protest

President Nixon President Nixon was elected on a pledge to bring the war to an honorable end Vietnamization (1975) Nixons plan to withdraw U.S. troops replace them with South Vietnamese forces using American equipment

Sound familiar? South Vietnam Falls (1975) South Vietnamese troops proved unable to resist invasion by the Soviet supplied North Vietnamese

army Internal and external pressures caused the collapse of the Soviet Union ENDING THE COLD WAR Internal Economic inefficiency Economic collapse

Internal Rising Nationalism in Soviet Republics Collapse of the U.S.S.R. End of Cold War Fall of the Berlin Wall (1989)

NATO Expansion Break up of Soviet Union (1991) Collapse of Soviet Union internal 1. Rising nationalism in Soviet Republics

Warsaw Pact Poland Solidarity movement Hungary Collapse of Soviet Union internal 2. Fast-paced reforms (market economy)

Economic inefficiency economic collapse Collapse of Soviet Union internal Increasing Soviet military expenses to compete with the United States Collapse of Soviet Union internal

President Gorbachev last president of the U.S.S.R. Tried to stop the Soviet collapse by using Western ideas glasnost Openness More personal

freedoms perestroika economic restructuring Some forms of capitalism allowed in the U.S.S.R. Birthmark on forehead = can tell who he is The Soviet

economy is collapsing communist totalitarianism not working as economic system Last president of U.S.S.R. tried to stop collapse

Perestroika = economic Glasnost Gorbachev = restructuring openness More capitalism More freedoms Mikhail

Ronald Reagan and the U.S. pressured Gorbachev to make decisions Cold War wants to stop the Soviet Union Evil Empire Mr. Gorbachev tear down this wall. Ronald Increased U.S.

military Reagan spending Wall probably going to come down anyway Collapse of Soviet Union internal 3. break up in 1991! Collapse of the Soviet Union 4.

Leads to an expansion in the number of countries in NATO Area in light blue, NATO countries in Europe today NATO President Reagan Ronald Reagan

Challenged moral legitimacy of the Soviet Union Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall Fall of Berlin Wall (1989) 5. Fall of Berlin Wall in 1989 Fall of Berlin Wall

President Reagan Increased U.S. military pressure on the Soviet Union President Reagan Increased U.S. economic pressure on the Soviet Union

Cold War wants to end it as soon as possible! British prime minister in the 1980s friend of Reagan, anti-U.S.S.R. Free trade Less govt regulation Margaret

Thatcher Military buildup Close personal ties/political conservative with Reagan and U.S. Cold War Timeline

End of the Cold War Superpowers Sole Superpower 1945 - 1989 1989 - ? YOU!!!

Are an SOL Power

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