World War I - Woodbridge Township School District

World War I - Woodbridge Township School District

The Great War World War I World War I Fought largely in Europe 1914-1918 Allies (France, England, America, Russia) Central Powers (Germany, AustriaHungary, and Turkey)

4 MAIN Causes Militarism: rivalries led nations to build up their military arsenals and plan strategies of offensive and defensive war. Britain and Germany took the lead

Schlieffen plan Alfred von Schlieffen Militarism continued France: The Plan 17

French believed that if they drove straight into Germany through Alsace and Lorraine, using the fighting spirit "elan" of their soldiers and not relying on technology, they would quickly defeat the Germans. Alliance System

Mutual hostilities, jealousies, fears, economic rivalries led to defense alliances formed in Europe. Triple Alliance: Germany, AustriaHungary, Italy 1882: to prevent Italy From taking sides With Russia

Alliance system contd Triple Entente: England, France, Russia Several agreements from 1904-1914 to counter the German threat No separate peace

Italy joined in 1915 Imperialism The quest for colonies and overseas resources/markets increased European rivalries

Example: Moroccan Crisis, 1905-6 Germany attempted to use the issue of Morocco's independence to increase frictions

between France and the United Kingdom, as well as to advance German commercial interests in Morocco. Moroccan Crisis, continued

The crisis worsened German relations with both France and the United Kingdom, and helped ensure the success of the new Anglo-French Entente. Nationalism Feelings of ethnic pride and unity

The desire for self-determination & freedom Self determination is the principle in international law, that nations have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international

political status with no external compulsion or external interference. Nationalism: Examples Poles divided in Germany, AustriaHungary, Russia (by 1795 the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth had ended.) Nevertheless, hopes for restoration of Polish independence were kept alive throughout the 19th

century by events within and without the Polish lands. Nationalism: Examples Slavic people of central and eastern Europe sought independence from foreign control.

Russia wanted to be the leader of the Slavic people in Europe (including Serbs). Serbia was an independent nation but millions of Serbs were in A-H empire. Nationalism: Examples Not

all Frenchmen were located in France French lost Alsace-Lorraine to Germany in 1871 Immediate cause of WWI On

June28, 1914 in Sarajevo (the capital of A-Hs province of Bosnia) people gathered to see the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Black Hand, shot and killed Ferdinand and his wife. Summer of 1914

Austria issued an ultimatum to Serbia; Serbia only partially agreed. Austria declared war on Serbia. The Guns of August Germany pledged to support Austria Russia mobilized to help Serbia

Germany declared war on Russia France allied with Russia Germany declared war on France Germany invaded Belgium Britain declared war on Germany No easy victory The invasion of Belgium Four long years

Millions dead Billions of dollars in damages Stalemate on the Western Front All Quiet on the

Western Front New Weapons of War Manfred von Richthofen The American Doughboy

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