World War II Chapter 20 World War II Allies vs. Axis Powers Italy, Germany and Japan form Axis Revisionists: wished to revise post-World War I peace treaties
Allies initially follow policy of appeasement War erupts 1939, global by 1941, over 1945 Japan in China Conquest of Chinese Manchuria 1931-1932 Full-scale invasion in 1937 The Rape of Nanjing Ariel bombing of urban center
400,000 Chinese used for bayonet practice, massacred 7,000 women raped 1/3 of all homes destroyed Japan signs Tripartite Pact with Germany, Italy (1940), and a Non-Aggression Pact with USSR (1941)
Japanese aggression spurs United Front policy between Chinese Communists and Nationalists Guerilla warfare ties down half of the Japanese army Yet continued clashes between Communists and Nationalists
Communists gain popular support, upper hand by end of the war Italy Benito Mussolini invades Ethiopia with overpowering force 2,000 Italian troops killed; 275,000 Ethiopians killed
Also takes Libya, Albania Germany Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) withdraws from League of Nations Remilitarizes Germany Anschluss (Union) with Austria, 1938
Italy, France, Great Britain, Germany meet Allies follow policy of appeasement Hitler promises to halt expansionist efforts British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940) promises peace for our time Hitler signs secret Russian-German Treaty of Non-Aggression 1939 (aka MolotovRibbentrop Pact, aka Nazi-Soviet Pact)
Invasion of Poland September 1, 1939 Blitzkrieg: lightning war strategy Air forces soften up target, armored divisions rush in German U-boats (submarines) patrol Atlantic, threaten British shipping
Fall of France 1940: Germany occupies Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands, France Hitler forces French to sign armistice agreement in same railroad car used for the armistice imposed on
Germany in 1918 Miracle at Dunkirk Battle of Britain Air war conducted by the German Luftwaffe The Blitz 40,000 British civilians killed in urban bombing raids
Especially London Royal Air Force prevents Germans from invading Keep Calm and Carry On Invasion of the USSR Lebensraum (living space)
June 22, 1941 Hitler double-crosses Stalin and invades USSR, Operation Barbarossa Stalin caught off-guard, rapid advance But severe winter, long supply lines weakened German efforts Soviets regroup and attack Spring 1942 Turning point: Battle of Stalingrad (ends February 1943)
The U.S.A. US initiates cash and carry policy to supply Allies with arms lend-lease program: US lends war goods to Allies, leases naval bases in return US freezes Japanese assets in US US places embargo on oil shipments to Japan
Japanese Defense Minister Tojo Hideki (18841948) plans for war with US Japan Attacks the U.S.
Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941 FDR: A date which will live in infamy Destroyed US Navy in the Pacific Hitler, Mussolini declare war on the US on December 11 US joins Great Britain and the USSR Victory in Europe
Red Army (USSR) gains offensive after Stalingrad (February 1943) British, US forces attack in North Africa, Italy D-Day: June 6, 1944, British and US forces land in France US, Britain bomb German cities Dresden, February 1945: 135,000 Germans killed in shelters 30 April 1945 Hitler commits suicide, 8 May Germany
surrenders Victory in the Pacific US code breaking operation Magic discovers Japanese plans Battle of Midway (4 June 1942) US takes the offensive, engages in islandhopping strategy
Iwo Jima and Okinawa Japanese kamikaze suicide bombers Savage two-month battle for Okinawa Victory in the Pacific US firebombs Tokyo, March 1945 100,000 killed 25% of buildings destroyed
Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, August 6 and 9, 1945 Emperor Hirohito (1901-1989) surrenders unconditionally September 2, 1945 Women WAVES (Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency
Service) US, Great Britain bar women from serving in combat units Soviet, Chinese forces include women fighters Women very active in resistance movements Women occupy jobs of men away at war Also take on head of household duties Temporary: men returning from war displace women
Yet lasting impact on womens movement Women Asian women forced into prostitution by Japanese forces Comfort Women 20-30 men per day, in war zones Comfort Houses, Consolation Centers Killed when infected with venereal disease
Large-scale massacres at end of war to hide crimes Social ostracism for survivors Deaths in Millions 0.3 0.4
6 6 20 2
4 15 USSR China Germany Japan Poles
Britain US Jews Beginning of the Cold War US, USSR, Great Britain unnatural allies during World War II Tensions submerged until close of war
Yalta and Potsdam Conferences (1945) Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt at Yalta/Stalin, Attlee, Truman at Potsdam Decided on USSR declaration of war vs. Japan, setting up of International Military Tribunal Free elections for Eastern Europe 4 zones in Germany
Stalin arranges pro-communist governments in Eastern European countries 1946: Iron Curtain descends Truman Doctrine
World divided into free and enslaved states US to support all movements for democracy containment of Communism NATO (1949) and the Warsaw Pact (1955) established Militarization of Cold War
Marshall Plan Named for George C. Marshall (1880-1989), US Secretary of State Proposed in 1947, $13 billion to reconstruct western Europe USSR establishes Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), 1949
The United Nations formed (1945) to resolve international disputes
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