Writing a Research Paper:

Writing a Research Paper:

Everything you will ever need to know and more Alex Haley. Accessed September 6, 2002, http ://en.canada.org/cana/Alex_Haley Liukkonen, P. Alex Palmer Haley. 2003, Accessed September 6, 2006, http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/ ahaley.htm. Smith, Jane. The Life and Times of Alex Haley. Biography Magazine, January, 2005, 23-33.

Roberts, Peter. Alex Haley and Our Roots. New York: Oxford Press, January 2005. Discussing books or magazines: Alex Haley is well known for his books The Autobiography of Malcolm X and Roots: The Saga of an American Family. Paraphrasing one author Chickens made less money than cows throughout the nineteenth century (Arbogast 4).

Paraphrasing two authors King Louis X forbade chickens to gather in public in 1880 (Mitton and Reid 10). Paraphrasing more than two authors Chickens were often punished for offenses by cutting off their food supplies (Reid et al. 10). Paraphrasing an unknown author (Use title of work) The Great Chicken Rebellion started in Truro, Nova Scotia (The Year of the Chicken, 5).

More than 3 words: Include within paper, continue to double space, use quotation marks. Over 4 lines: Double-indent quoted passage and no quotation marks.

Add citation at the end of quotations. Include author and page number: The Great Chicken Rebellion was heralded as the event that divided all of Canada (Reid 5). Make sure ALL ASPECTS of your paper are within MLA format!! (Works Cited page, Header with page numbers) Check your MLA

handout!! Step One: Generate a research question (what do I want to know?) Step Two: Break it up into smaller questions (How will I find out?) Step Three: Find information Step Four: Organize information Step Five: Formulate your argument

Topic: The Great Chicken Rebellion of 1933 What caused the Great Chicken Rebellion of 1933? What conditions did the chickens live under? society at the time? What changes were occurring in

Were their rulers just or unjust? Generate key words for Library/Internet research, based on your questions Get background info (5 Ws) Scan sources for important details BUT

also read for context! Take organized notes!! DO NOT PLAGIARIZE! Use credible, reliable sources... Author/Organization (Are they an expert? Do they have an agenda?)

Language (Strong? Vague? Positive? Negative) Quality of argument (What information are they basing it on?) Sources sources (how/where did they get their information?) Strong

Peer-Reviewed Journals Academic Databases Encyclopedias News, web sites or other media (SOMETIMES) Shaky

The first thing you find on Google Student Essays Open sites (e.g. Wikipedia can be a starting point) News, web sites or other media (SOMETIMES)

Remember your questions Sort and sift: Does this information answer the questions? Arrange information according to question or idea Draw conclusions Synthesize your information: How does it answer the bigger research question? During the 20th century, chickens were very poor. The king of the land jailed chickens without trial

regularly. Officials made laws that prevented chickens from going to school or publishing books or newspapers No chickens owned land A secret school formed in 1925 that taught chickens to read and write The number of chicken protest

marches increased between 1920 and 1930 Police searched Chicken houses regularly. Chickens were only paid 10 cents an hour, while most humans were paid 30 cents an hour. Chickens started to publish secret newspapers Hundreds of Chickens starved between 1920 and 1930

Question 1: What conditions did Chickens live under? During the twentieth century, chickens were very poor. Hundreds of chickens starved between 1920 and 1930 Chickens were only paid 10 cents an hour, while humans were paid 30 cents an hour Question 2: What were their rulers like? The king passed laws preventing chickens from going to school. Police searched the houses of chickens regularly.

Chickens were jailed without trial regularly. Question 3: What changes were happening in society? Chickens started to publish illegal newspapers A secret school formed for Chickens The number of protest marches increased Chickens lived in extreme poverty. Chickens were ruled by an oppressive state. Chickens were becoming more educated

about their rights. What caused the Great Chicken Rebellion of 1933? The Chicken Rebellion of 1933 was a result of extreme poverty, an oppressive state, and education about Chicken rights. Main argument or focus of your paper Maps out the paper

Often answers the questions why? and how? Very close, if not identical, to your research question answer!! Last sentence in your introductory paragraph Should be specific and manageable! Poor: The Great Chicken Rebellion of 1933 affected Canada in negative and positive ways. Better: The Great Chicken Rebellion of 1933 affected Canada politically, economically, socially and culturally.

Poor: The Great Chicken Rebellion was caused by the anger and frustration of chickens everywhere. Better: The Great Chicken Rebellion was a result of extreme chicken poverty, an oppressive state, and education for Chicken Rights. Break down your thesis into smaller points Irons out bare bones of your information Insert your research, in order, as supporting evidence

Will save you time in the end! Argument One: Extreme poverty provoked chickens to take action for their rights. -supporting details Argument Two: State oppression caused chicken activists to turn to violence. -supporting details Argument Three: Chicken education spread awareness among chickens about their rights.

-supporting details Attracts the interest of the reader Gives background/historical information Discusses the general focus of the paper Presents the thesis statement Poor: The purpose of this essay is to tell you about the Great Chicken Rebellion. The Great Chicken Rebellion was when all of the Chickens in Atlantic Canada fought

for their rights. The first riot that started the rebellion was in Halifax. The poverty that the chickens lived in will be examined. State oppression and education will also be discussed. All of these things caused the rebellion. Better: Chickens all over Canada still read their children stories of the Great Chicken Rebellion of 1933. The Rebellion was an event that secured human rights for chickens in the laws of our nation. These rights were hard won, but fought for out of necessity and desperation. Beginning in the early 1900s,

the state had begun to suppress the freedoms of chickens and poverty among chickens became widespread. However, Clandestine groups of chickens began to organize and find ways to educate their peers about their natural rights. The Great Chicken Rebellion resulted from extreme chicken poverty, an oppressive state and education for chicken rights. Breaks your thesis down into smaller arguments

Topic sentence = mini-thesis Presents your supporting evidence Tells the reader so what? and relates us back to the thesis Theoretical what authors and researchers use to explain, predict, and understand a topic or an issue

For your essay, you will evaluate and analyze their ideas for whether or not they are sound and effectively explain, predict, or understand the topic or issue. Exploratory intends merely to explore the research questions and does not intend to offer final and conclusive solutions to existing problems.

For your essay, you will want to explore the authors or researchers questions, research, and data. Empirical research tests, studies, and examines a topic or hypothesis with empirical results. For your essay, you will examine the steps the authors or

researchers took to get their results. You may use interviews as a primary source 2 Books 3 Database articles Images Tables Charts All must be in proper MLA citation

Poor: Many chickens were starving in Canada. John Jacob, a Chicken from Pictou, was an influential writer for secret newspapers in Nova Scotia. Chickens usually didnt make enough money to buy food for the month. Many chickens went to work hungry. They started to demonstrate in the streets to protest bread prices. Better: Extreme poverty started to provoke chickens to take action for their rights. In the early 1900s, many chickens lived in poverty, and the

situation worsened as the century progressed. In 1903, fifty per cent of chickens lived below the poverty line in Canada, while by 1925, seventyfive per cent were living in poverty (Reid 5). In The Chicken Diaries, Jones describes the plight of many chickens she met in Legal Aid office who could not even afford to feed their families (2). Moreover, it was almost impossible to break out of this poverty-- laws prevented chickens from making more than ten cents an hour, which did not even cover the cheapest rent, and few chickens owned land or capital (Jones 6). In 1930, a series of protests began against the prices of bread and the wage laws. These demonstrations became increasingly violent over the next three years. In 1930, there were eight protests across Canada and all

were nonviolent. In 1932, there were fifty protests across Canada, twenty of which became violent, despite increased police security at demonstrations (Reid 5). Anger was fermenting over harsh living Reiterates your thesis Sums up your main arguments Wraps up: Gives the reader an overall so what? Comments further, but does NOT present new

information. Should have a sense of finality-- dont just stop!! Poor: After the chickens started publishing more information about rights and how to protest and rebel and stuff, chickens started to protest more. Chickens found out that they were smart too. They realized that their lives were harsh compared to humans and cows, and that they were unequal. They started to push for laws that would state their equal rights. In this paper, we saw how poverty,

state oppression, and education helped them do this. Better: The Chicken Rebellion was a result of extreme chicken poverty, an oppressive state, and education for chicken rights. All of these forces combined to create a climate in which change was both necessary and desirable. Conditions of extreme poverty drove chickens to protest against the unequal distribution of wealth and improve their situation. Excessive state repression provoked chickens to risk their lives for personal freedoms of the next generation. Finally, secret schools became the centre for radical thoughts on rights and freedoms,

and these ideas were propelled into secret newspapers and speeches at secret meetings. Discontent and desperation were channeled into newly organized and educated activist groups, who planned and promoted a rebellion for a receptive Chicken public. Though the battle was long and difficult, many chickens today celebrate these ancestors who fought for the freedoms and rights they enjoy. Statement Chickens were oppressed by the state. Reason/Elaboration (Why? How?)

The King of Canada took several steps to ensure that chicken rights were limited. Evidence/Example (Who? What? When? Where?) In 1925, he passed a law preventing chickens from going to school. Source (Someone else who said it!) (Arbogast 5). YOU ARE THE EXPERT! Alot v.s. a lot

Its v.s. its 10 v.s. ten Dont v.s. Do not Theyre, There, and Their Then v.s. Than Informal language Typos!! Unnecessary commas: The demonstration

began, around noon, all chickens were present, no one had forgotten this important day. Try: The demonstration began around noon and all chickens were present. No one had forgotten this important day. No pause or comma: The chickens were waiting in the field the humans were inside the

building the cows were anxious we waited for a long time. Try: The chickens were waiting in the field, the humans were inside the building, and the cows were anxious. We waited for a long time. Annoying: Some believe the rebellion began with the riots in Truro, where experts say

most of the learning and secret organizing took place and the earliest newspapers were published, the first major protest about bread prices took place on Prince street and inspired demonstrations across Canada, which first made the public aware that chickens wanted more rights. Try: Some believe the rebellion began with riots in Truro. Experts say most of the learning and secret organizing

took place in this area. The earliest chicken newspapers were published here. To carry on the tradition, the first major protest against bread prices took place on Prince street and sparked a nation-wide rebellion, which first made the public aware of the fight for chicken rights. Annoying: Chickens thought they were deserving of more rights and freedoms. Poverty was a huge problem. Chickens

were not even allowed to go to school. They started to get angry and organize protests. Secret schools started. Some chickens went to work hungry and couldnt work well, so were fired by their bosses. The fact that chickens did not make a lot of money caused problems too. Annoying: The demonstrations helped

chickens by the attention from the public that it gives them and the rights that they had after. Try: Demonstrations helped chickens promote their cause because they attracted attention from the public. After the rebellion, many chicken experts believed that the demonstrations, more than anything else, informed the public of the conditions endured by chickens.

GOOD LUCK AND HAVE FUN!

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