PHYLUM PORIFERA CELLULAR level of body organization Middle layer = MESOHYL Acellular matrix - location of spicules, spongin & archeocytes Diagnostic cell type: CHOANOCYTE the flagellated collar cell The Three TYPES of Sponges Asconoid = smallest

Leuconoid = Largest Syconoid = middle-sized Porifera Asconoid PHYLUM TYPE Too small to dissect in lab, you could only look at

a whole specimen (as above) or prepared slides. Porifera Asconoid PHYLUM TYPE BSU Basic Sponge Unit Its choanocytes are located in the spongocoel. Note the buds (asexual reproduction) and many oscula (plural of osculum). What are gemmules?

Porifera Asconoid PHYLUM TYPE Note: Spicules at the neck of the osculum Terms you need to know: spicules, spongocoel, osculum & bud. Compare to fig 1.3-A in your lab manuals. Incurrent Pores (Ostia), Porocytes and Prosopyles

Incurrent pores or ostia are the openings through which water first enters a sponge. These can be formed by one or more cells. The PROSPYLE is name given to the entry hole/channel/pore leading into the area of choanocytes. It is formed by one donut-shaped cell, the porocyte. Asconoid Sponges Since in asconoid sponges the incurrent pore/ostium not only brings water directly into the sponge, but also into contact with the choanocytes

(lining the spongocoel), it has a dual function. The incurrent pore/ostium is also serves as a prosopyle. The actual opening is formed by 1 cell, the porocyte. Syconoid Sponges The ostia/incurrent pores in syconoid sponges are generally made of several cells. Water enters the sponge through these pores and moves into the incurrent canal. Water leaves this area to enter the radial canal (area of choanocytes) via the prosopyle (a porocyte cell)

Note the prominent spicules Porifera Syconoid PHYLUM TYPE The choanocytes are located in the radial canals. These are the middle-sized sponges O I

Ostium R S P I S l.s. & l.s.

c.s. views Porifera Syconoid PHYLUM TYPE I I R R

Osculum (O) Spongocoel (S) Incurrent canal (I) Radial canals (R) Choanocytes (C) Water enters via the ostium - > l - > via the Prosopyle (P) (a porocyte cell type) - > radial canal - > Apopyle - > S - > O Porifera Leuconoid PHYLUM TYPE

These are examples of the most complex sponge type. The choanocytes are located in the many flagellated chambers. Any large sponge is most likely a leuconoid - type sponge. Leuconoid Sponges The ostia (several cells) allow water to enter incurrent canals. Water leaves these to enter the flagellated chambers (area of choanocytes) via the prosopyles (porocytes) Sponge Reproduction

Sponges are monoecious ASEXUAL Marine Budding Fragmentation Regeneration Freshwater sponges Gemmules + 3 methods above SEXUAL Male & female gametes are formed.

Archeocytes become eggs Choanocytes filter sperm out of the water Fertilization is involved. Planktonic larvae or mini flagellated colonies are released to colonize new areas.

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