HiSET English: With Writing and Reading Subtests Bethann Paul Online Practice: https://www.essentialed.com/start/wind ward Do you have login already?

Do you remember it? ETS Website Sign-up: https://hiset.ets.org/test-takers Do you have login already? Do you remember it? Overview of Test

5 Sections: Math Reading Writing Science Social Studies Time Lengths, details https://hiset.ets.org/about/content/

Reading Test Section Language Arts Reading Test (p. 303 and 333) Fiction: Real/Not Real? (p. 303) Made up of Prose and ________________ Make up ______ % of the test Non-Fiction: Real/Not Real? (p. 333)

Make up ________ % of the test 333) Answer Key: Fiction: Real/Not Real? (p. 303) Made up of Prose and ____Poetry____________ Make up __60____ % of the test Non-Fiction: Real/Not Real? (p. 333) Make up __40______ % of the test

Reading Pre-Test (p. 89-98) Complete Test Timer embedded for 25 minutes Score test using scoring key on p. 99-100 Review together Online Lesson! 1.

2. 3. 4. Log into: https://www.essentialed.com/start/windward Check Inbox Messages Go to My Lessons/Dashboard Complete 3 Assigned Lessons Online Lesson Steps

1. Log into: https://www.essentialed.com/start/windward 2. 3. Go to My Lessons/Dashboard Complete 3 Assigned Lessons

Reading Test, Prose Chapter 22 Chapter 22: Interpreting Prose Fiction (p. 311) Prose passages are fictional accounts, written in traditional paragraph style Comprehension is the key to analyzing,

applying, interpreting, and synthesizing. Chapter 22: Interpreting Prose Fiction (p. 311) Poetry Prose Stanzas

Paragraphs Line=not necessarily full idea Sentence= full thought Figurative Language Literary Terms

Comprehension Strategies (p. 311) Discovering the Authors Purpose 1. To persuade 2. To inform 3. To entertain Think: PIE

Making Predictions (p. 312) Making inferences based on what is likely to happen Not explicitly given information Inference Example 1 A character has a diaper in her hand, spit-up on her shirt, and a bottle warming on the counter.

You can infer that this character is a mother. Inference Example 2 A character uses words like "stat", "emergency", "prep", and "operation." You can infer that this character is a doctor. Inference Example 3 When you enter a house, you see backpacks by

the door, small shoes scattered near them. You see a small art easel, and a room with a doll house and a toy box. You can infer that this family has children. Understanding Theme (p. 312) The message the author is trying to convey Not just a topic Synthesizing Information (p. 312)

Gathering information from more than one source. Determining Point of View (p. 312) First Person Second Person Third Person (limited) Third Person (omniscient)

Determining Word Meanings (p. 313) Contextual Cues Multiple-Meaning Words Roots and Affixes Prose Fiction Examples (p. 314-315) Prose Fiction Reading Drills (p. 315319)

Kahoot! Prefixes and Suffixes Prefix and Suffix Quiz Game Reading Test, Poetry Chapter 23 Chapter 23: Poetry Poetry

Prose Stanzas Paragraphs Line=not necessarily full idea Sentence= full thought

Figurative Language Literary Terms Comprehension Strategies in Poetry Features of poetry are unique and create a different way of analyzing poetry versus prose. Shakespearean Sonnets

The Odyssey-Homer Stanzas (p. 322) Lines arranged into groups Can tell through spacing

Poetry and Punctuation (p. 322) Poems do not follow structure based on pauses. When you get to the end of a line, do not stop unless there is punctuation Period

. comma , semicolon ;

colon : dash or Rhythm (p. 322) Musical pattern/beat created by syllables Changes the feels in the piece of poetry slow=sad, melancholy, thoughtful

fast=happy, excited, anxious Rhyme/Rhyme Scheme Rhyming words have similar sounding ends Not necessarily spelled the same Drought, tout Rhyme Scheme Pattern formed with rhyme

Poetry Lesson: Rhyme Example of Rhyme Scheme (p. 322) If entire alphabet is used, go to AA, BB, CC, etc.

Then to AAA, A B Now you try! B C

B A A C B Mood (p. 323) How the reader feels about the topic

The author is trying to get his/her audience to feel a certain way about the topic based on word choice and format Tone (p. 323) The way the author feels about the topic Is it clear he/she does not like a character or is persuading you to see a

their viewpoint Open Window Example Mood/Tone Video (Purpose Interwoven) Figurative Language Figures of speech used by the author to help illustrate a message or emphasize a point Figurative Language

Helps literature be more descriptive and interesting 1. Hyperbole: exaggeration 2. Idiom: expressions or figures of speech with a nonliteral meaning 3. Metaphor: comparison between two unlike things 4. Simile: comparison between unlike things using like or as 5. Personification: giving objects human qualities Idiom An expression that doesnt make sense when read literally

Every language/culture has their own American English: Its raining cats and dogs Its so hot out, I might melt. ngry a y r

Spanish idiom eexample: ve m o c be Estar un aj : tohecho s

n a e M Translation: to have a chili Hyperbole Extreme exaggeration Its so hot, Im going to die!

Metaphor Comparison between two unlike things Daniel was a ghost. He rarely ever came to class. Simile Comparison using like or as She smells like a rose. Personification

Giving human-like qualities to inanimate objects The wind howled through the trees. Alliteration: Similar sounds in the beginning of the word The deliberate Doberman dog dug in the yard. Assonance: Repetition of vowel sounds Doesnt it feel like a dream, or like steel was the core of

your bones after your protein meal drink? Consonance: Repetition of consonant sounds in words The mask was hidden behind the damascus biscuit sculpture. Style Type of language the author uses to convey purpose of the writing and speak to intended audience

Formal Informal Conversational Word Usage Helps to set the style Can alter the message taken away from the text Justin struggled on the phone, explaining the days events to his estranged

father. Justin chatted on the phone, explaining the days events to his dad. The musty closet was full of junk, such as old photos and paintings. The ancient closet was full of treasures, such as old photos

and paintings. Poetry Examples (p. 325-327) Online Lesson! 1. 2. 3. 4.

Log into: https://www.essentialed.com/start/windward Check Inbox Messages Go to My Lessons/Dashboard Complete 3 Assigned Lessons Kahoot! Quiz Kahoot! Quiz Link Prose and Poetry Log into Kahoot.it on your phone Use pin displayed on the screen Make a name and join

ETS Website SignUp Poetry Drills (p. 327-331) Dates for Reading Test: 8th (Night @6:30), 10th (Night @ 6:30)

Essential Ed Logins Online Lesson Steps 1. Log into: https://www.essentialed.com/start/windward 2. 3.

Go to My Lessons/Dashboard Complete 3 Assigned Lessons Chapter 24: Reading Informational Texts (p. 333) Main Idea Central message of the text Main idea behind why the author is writing the non-fiction

piece About the TOPIC given (think your essay topics) Supporting Ideas The facts, examples, definitions that the author uses to explain the main idea Making Inferences Review (p. 334) Similar to drawing conclusions or

predicting Types of Organizational Structures 1. Cause and Effect 2. Classification 3. Compare and Contrast 4. Description 5. Problem and Solution 6. Sequence

Cause and Effect Because of this, this happens Used often in textbooks, scientific articles, passages that give explanations of why certain things happen Example: Cheetahs are the fastest

land animal. Because of Classification Placing labels to identifying subjects Can narrow down items by placing into subcategories Example: Taxonomy of animals

Compare and Contrast What makes things similar, and what makes them different Example: Venn Diagrams Description Factual information about one specific topic, person,

organism, object, event, etc. Example: The lightbulb is often accredited as an invention by Edison, but actually there was Problem and Solution Explains a problem and presents a solution, series of solutions

Often used in help manuals, online forums, Q and A articles, advice columns, research study findings Example: When a student calls out in class, it is usually best practice to prompt the student to raise his/her hand, ignore continued calling out, and call on those who are behaving in the desired way.

Sequence Describes the order of steps, events, etc. Example: Recipes Manuals for DIY Fact or Opinion Pop Quiz Keep track of your correct answers!

Video on Fact Versus Opinion Round 1 President Barack Obama was born in the United States. FACT Round 2 Abortion should be legal in most cases.

OPINION Round 3 Immigrants who are in the U.S. illegally have some rights under the Constitution. FACT Round 4 Health care costs per person in the U.S. are

the highest in the developed world. FACT Round 5 Democracy is the greatest form of government. OPINION Round 6 Government is almost always wasteful and

inefficient. OPINION Round 7 ISIS lost a significant portion of its territory in Iraq and Syria in 2017. FACT Round 8 Spending on Social Security, Medicare, and

Medicaid make up the largest portion of the U.S. federal budget. FACT Round 9 Increasing the federal minimum wage to $15 an hour is essential for the health of the U.S. economy.

OPINION LAST ONE! Round 10 Immigrants who are in the U.S. illegally are a very big problem for the country today. OPINION Informational Text Drills (p.338-341) Review Chapter 24 Drills (p. 338-341)

Reading Practice Test (paper, timed) 35 minutes-20 questions Essential Ed Reading Practice Test (online)

https://www.essentialed.com/start/windward Writing Section Writing Essay Pre-Test (in HiSET book) Chapter 9: Essay Writing

Outlin e!! ***Sample Essay Outline*** I. Introduction C. Supporting Detail A. Hook 1. Evidence from B. Introduce Topic

passage C. Thesis 2. Support II. Body 3. Refutation of A. Supporting Detail 1 counterpoint 1. Evidence from passage III. Conclusion 2. Support

A. Restate thesis 3. Refutation of B. Review supporting details counterpoint C. Call to Action: B. Supporting Detail 2 1. SO WHAT? 1. Evidence from passage 2. Support

Topic: Cell phone use in schools I. Introduction A. Hook: make reader interested in your essay 1. rhetorical question 2. Quote 3. Fact B. Introduce Topic: 1. Should cellphones be allowed for use in school? C. Thesis: 1. Cell phone use is a necessary component for

schools to modernize, prepare students for their future careers, and teach students M A S E! PL

Topic: Cell phone use in schools II. Body M SA ! A. Supporting Detail 1: cell phones should be used as tools in the classroom 1. Evidence from passage

2. Support/Explanation in own words 3. Refutation of counterpoint: Some people might believe that cell phone use in the classroom is disruptive to learning. If the phone is used as a tool, students will not be as likely to use them L P Topic: Cell phone use in

schools B. Supporting Detail 2: cell phones prepare students for their future careers 1. Evidence from passage 2. Support/Explanation in own words 3. Refutation of counterpoint: Many traditional educators do not use modern technology in their careers and argue that they do well, however, in many careers, proper cell phone use is not only acceptable, it is necessary in order to complete work and meet employer expectations. Many

companies have social media platforms and text/email Topic: Cell phone use in schools C. Supporting Detail 3-Cell phones can be used to teach students responsibility M SA E!

PL 1. Evidence from passage 2. Support/Explanation in own words 3. Refutation of counterpoint: This concept is sometimes met by resistance by adults who believe that cellphones are distractions to students in the classroom. This can be countered by using cellphone apps to communicate with students, teaching students to remain on-task

using timers, engaging in online games/apps to reinforce curriculum, and keeping track of Topic: Cell phone use in schools III. Conclusion A. Restate thesis: Cell phone use is a necessary component for schools to modernize, prepare students for their future careers, and teach

students responsibility B. Review supporting details: Cell phones can be used as a tool of education for students to communicate with each other, to communicate with the teachers/adults in their classes, and to collaborate with team members. C. Call to Action: what do you want your reader to do? Writing Section

of Class Notes Writing, Chapter 5 Usage Rules (p. 125-129) Subject-Verb Agreement Plurals/Singular Verb Tense Verb Tense

Pronoun Usage Chapter 5: Basic English Rules (p. 125) This section discusses importance of noun/pronoun and grammatical rules in the Writing Section of the HiSET this is a big factor in this section Can use notecards to record these or notebook paper if you choose If its something you are already comfortable

with, feel free use book to review Subject-Verb Agreement Subject- who the sentence is about Singular Plural Kim Dan

I You Kim and Ryan My dog and I We The two of them Subject-Verb Agreement Contd Verb- what is the subject doing (action,

state of being) Verb and subject must match forms Subject Verb Kim Ryan and Kim We Dan Was

Were Have Has Groups (p.126) Some groups are singular Examples: The debate club was planning on meeting after school.

Some things look like a group, but are singular, these are called collective nouns Examples: The pile of stuffed animals has not moved. A dozen eggs is enough to bake the pound cake. Gerunds (p. 126) Verbs, ending with -ing which are nouns Always considered singular nouns Example:

Running late on the first day of a new job is not wise. Being early for class is advised. Taking too long on homework becomes wasteful. Nor If two singular subjects are connected by or/nor, then verb is SINGULAR Example: Joseph or Caroline is bringing the cake today. If two or more subjects are connected by or/nor, one being

singular and one plural, the plural is put closest to verb and verb is PLURAL Ex: Neither Kathy nor the guys are coming tonight. If subjects are from multiple categories within 1st, 2nd, 3rd person rules, the verb agrees with subject CLOSEST. Verb Tenses (p. 127) Verb Tense

Definition Example Simple Present Tense Currently occurring Jim goes to work. Present Perfect Tense

Started in past, still occurring Eli has thrown over 100 footballs. Simple Past Tense Action already happened

Bo learned to ride a bike. Past Perfect Tense Two actions, one took place before another Flo had worked as a teacher before she was promoted.

Simple Future Tense Action that is future I will go to the zoo. Future Perfect Tense Action that will happen by Sadie will have finished the

specific future time. roof by Friday, so you can Will/Shall+Have+Verb Form start painting. Consider the following: Pronoun Usage (p. 12 Number Gender

Pronoun case (subject versus object in sentence) Example: he versus him Sam was surprised because he did not expect the same teacher. SUBJECT When Sam returned from the store, I gave him his change. OBJECT Indefinite Pronouns Example: Anyone, nobody, both, some of the children, etc.

Pronoun Person Pronouns in sentence must agree with subject Idiomatic Expressions (p. 129) Examples to review in book Extra Passages LINK-SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT DRILLS

Copy and Paste link below in browser: https://www.douglascollege.ca/-/media/AF77C270344F43 74ABBC6FF465A29189.ashx Another Helpful Resource to Review LINK-GRAMMAR RULES Or Copy and Paste in your browser: http://www.yourdictionary.com/pdf/articles/75.subject-verb-agree ment.pdf

Review Chapter 5 Drills Kahoot! Kahoot! Quiz Link Log into Kahoot.it on your phone Use pin displayed on the screen Make a name and join Writing,

Chapter 6 Chapter 6 : Writing Conventions Mechanics Notes Capitalization (p. 135136) Proper Nouns Names (Sarah, Andy, Kanoa Smith) Titles of People

Mr. Kealoha, Doctor Sutton, Captain Sanchez Mom versus mom Titles of Written Works For Whom the Bell Tolls The Pearl Groups New York Giants Department of

Education Locations Main Street Vernon, NJ Special days and events Veterans Day Election Day Hanukkah Punctuation: Commas (p.

137-139) Used to separate things Can use in many scenarios: Commas in Dates January 1, 2018, was the date of the show. The first of November, 2019. Commas in Locations Warwick, New York, is

the location of the museum Honolulu, HI Commas in a Series Beth, Lani, and Ally went to the store. Commas with Quotations The time is now, said Koa. Commas in Phrases

As you know, its important to study for the test. Rashad, who was just elected to Congress, is going Punctuation: Commas (Contd) (p. 137-139) Commas in Compound Sentences The student was a bleak exception to the rule, but this day he was an inspiration for other classmates.

Commas in Conjunctive Adverbs Leis daughter snuck out of the house. Accordingly, Lei decided to ground her daughter. Leis daughter snuck out of the house; accordingly, Lei decided to ground her daughter. Commas and Dependent Clauses Even though they had a good time, Suyi and Kai were not going to travel to India again. Semicolons (p.

139-140) Semicolons in a Series When phrases already use commas, you use semicolons to begin a list Allans former addresses included Long Island, New York; Atlanta, Georgia; and Memphis, Tennessee. Semicolons and Clauses Two independent ideas can be separated by semicolon Pua was not sure which way she should go; she knew going East would eventually lead her to shore.

Apostrophes (p. 140-141) Apostrophes in Singular Possessive Nouns Jamess backpack is in the seat. Apostrophes in Plural Possessive Nouns Nurses quarters Mens clothing Apostrophes in Compound Possessive The attorney generals district (1 person with their possession)

The attorneys generals districts (2 or more with other possessions) Fiona and Rays Jeep (more than one person sharing one possession) Apostrophes in Possessive Pronouns The library lost one of its books. Apostrophes (contd) (p. 140-141) Apostrophes in Plural Letters and Numbers By the end of the 1960s, the Vietnam War was in full swing. Ernie did not like that his daughter was earning mostly Cs

on her report card. Apostrophes in Contractions Combination of two words to shorten and create a new word with same meaning Cannot= cant Do not= dont Will not= wont Quotation Marks(p.

141) Quotation Marks in Quotes Lets go to the store, Hannah stated, since we need to get groceries anyway. Richard asked, Who knows where we will be in a few years? Tim exclaimed, I dont want you here! Why would you ask me that? Yumi asked. I dont really believe you, Jose said. Quotation Marks in Titles

My English class voted to read Fever 1793, but I was unimpressed. Spelling (p. 142) Homonyms

There, their, theyre Be, bee Its, its Then, than Effect, affect Your, youre Contractions

Dont, cant, wont, wouldnt, shouldnt (take the o out of not) Ill, well, theyll, youll (take the wi out of will) Were, theyre, youre (take the a out of are) Possessives Chapter 6 Drills (p. 144) Writing,

Chapter 7 Notes (p. 149) Person, Place, Thing, Idea Make a sentence with one in each category: Nouns Person

Place Thing Idea/ Concept Sarah

school the desk happiness I New York

my water bottle dream Rocko and Kawela the coffee shop

her flashlight democracy Review: Subject Versus Object Subject

Object Who/What/Where The object, person, (noun) that is doing idea, place (noun) the action/verb. that the action is happening to. Ben went to the store. I do not want to join Ben at the store.

The microwave was broken. Im going to repair the microwave. NOUNS ARE OFTEN INCLUDED IN SUBJECTS and OBJECTS of a sentence Subject/Object Overview Video

Sample Subject/Object Sentences S= Peter and I, O= our dinner S= The two girls O= my cousin S= Freddies friend

S= Mary O= orange O= sausage S= My rolls neighbor O= the dog Compound Subjects

Two or more nouns in the subject: Rocko and Kawela The King and I The dishwasher and the sink Action or State of Being (see previous class Verbsnotes) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4dPbciiZ

Sbo Action State of Being Walk Have, had Go Been, be, will be

Eat Am, are, is Compound Verbs More than one verb in a sentence: I walked the dog and gave him a bath. 1=walked; Past tense

2=gave verbs I will sing in the choir and I will dance on stage at the upcoming concert. 1=will sing; 2=will Future tense Clauses Independent:

Dependent: Phrase can stand on its own, Phrase is not a full thought No Complete

thought with Noun and Verb! The park at midnight Walking verb No subject

noun No complete mythought...what dog was Betsy? No Compound Sentences Two independent clauses joined together 1. connecting use of comma

conjunction I went for a swim, but Dan went to practice. OR 2. semicolon I went for a swim; Dan went Coordination Use of conjunctions to connect two independent clauses:

1. I went to the store, and then I took a walk. 2. Dana needed a coffee, but she was running late. Complex Sentences Joining an independent and dependent clause together using a conjunction: D

ID Because we arrived to class early, Tommy needed a break. ID D Subordination Combines independent clauses Adds a subordinating conjunction and makes one

clause now dependent on another Toni is really exhausted. She is excited to see her visiting friend. Although Toni is exhausted, she is excited to see her visiting friend. Conjunction Clauses Cause and Effect Because, now that, since

Condition As long as, only if, in case Contrast Although, while Time

Before, after, once, still Although Toni is exhausted,, she will stay up to see her visiting friend. Before Ali went to the store,, he walked down to the beach. Ken will skip lunch,, only if Opi brings him snacks. Compound-Complex Sentences Joining two or more INDEPENDENT clauses

AND one or more DEPENDENT clause. D I I D D When the bell rings, the students go home, and the teachers begin to pack up for their meetings.

NO-NOs!! Page 151-152 Run-Ons Comma Splice Sentence Fragments Run-On Sentence Video Sentence Fragments Video

Adjectives/Adverbs Modifiers Adjectives Adverbs Modify/Change/Describe NOUN Modify/Change/ Describe VERB

the BLUE shirt my SMALL dog his TALL brother the BIG idea jump QUICKLY duck SUDDENLY yawned LOUDLY talked

THOUGHTFULLY Modifier NO-NOs! Page 153-154 Misplaced Modifiers Dangling Modifiers Misplaced Modifier Video

Parallelism List of ideas or a comparison is in a sentence MUST FOLLOW SAME STRUCTURE Parallel Structure in Sentences Video

Chapter 7 Drills (p. 156-159) Chapter 8: Organization of Ideas Effective Organization (p. 161) Organization of an entire piece: Introduction Body Conclusion

Effective Organization (contd)- Organization of Paragraphs Topic Sentence Can be anywhere in the paragraph Often 1st or last sentence Main Idea Supporting Details

Data Details Summary Statement Restatement of topic sentence Rewording of main idea

Organizational Patterns (p. 162164) 1. Chronological Order a. First, then, next, finally b. Can be in order OR in reverse chronological order 2. Order of Importance a. Most important may be first OR last 3. Compare and Contrast a. May discuss one topic and then the other b. OR may discuss each aspect of topic to

compare/contrast i. i.e.: dogs versus cats a. Dogs are.. Cats are. b. Both dogs and cats have fur, however, the fur is different because Organizational Patterns (p. 162-164) 4. Cause and Effect a. One idea or event causes another (OR a chain of events)

5. Problem and Solution a. Problem is posed, solutions are discussed 6. Question and Answer a. Question posed and answer(s) are discussed Transition Words Chart for Purposes Format/ Purpose Words

Cause and Effect As a result, so, therefore, because, hence Comparison As well as, in common, likewise Contrast

Although, however, on the other hand, yet, unlike Introducing Examples For example, in fact, specifically Showing Addition Also, furthermore, in addition

Time or Sequence First, then. finally, next, preceding, until Organization of Ideas Drills (p. 167171) Essay Format: Option 1 C. Supporting Detail 3 I. Introduction

1. Evidence from passage A. Hook 2. Support B. Introduce Topic C. Thesis 3. Refutation of II. Body counterpoint A. Supporting Detail 1 II. Conclusion

1. Evidence from passage A. Restate thesis 2. Support B. Review supporting details 3. Refutation of counterpoint C. Call to Action: B. Supporting Detail 2 1. SO WHAT? 1. Evidence from passage 2. Support

3. Refutation of counterpoint Essay Format: Option 2 I. Introduction A. Hook B. Introduce Topic C. Thesis II. Body A. Supporting Detail 1 1. Evidence from

passage 2. Support B. Supporting Detail 2 1. Evidence from C. Supporting Detail 3 1. Evidence from passage 2. Support D. Counterpoint 1. Why might some people

disagree? 2. Why are they wrong? II. Conclusion A. Restate thesis B. Review supporting details C. Call to Action: Chapter 9: Essay Drill (p. 182-184) You will have 60 min to plan, draft, write, and revise an essay based on a prompt and an argumentative

stance. You may use your notes on essay writing that we have discussed in the past. and 2 Practice Test 7 TIPS: 1. Do not spend too

much time deciding which side to choose a. Pick a side while reading passages b. STICK WITH IT! 2. Outline your three points first on scratch paper 3. Use evidence from passage and explain

that evidence 4. Include at least one counterclaim 5. Conclude with asking Chapter 9: Writing Part 2 Essay Drill Page 17-20 on attached PDF link for future reference HiSET Essay Link: https://hiset.ets.org/s/pdf/practice/writing_fpt6a.pdf

General Review Sentences have: Subject-who is sentence about EVERY SENTENCE HAS ONE Verb- action or state of being of subject EVERY SENTENCE HAS ONE Object- who or what the action is happening to NOT IN EVERY SENTENCE

Practice? Chapter 5 Review Pronouns-take the place of proper noun Capitalizing pronoun? Can it replace the name directly? I went to see my B/brother today I went to see my Matt today. NO! Lowercase brother I went to see M/mom today. I went to see Rose today.

YES! Uppercase Mom Chapter 5 Review Subject/Verb must agree One subject/one group-singular verb More than one subject or plural subject-plural verb Verb tenses must match sentence meaning and context Past tense sentence? Action happened in past? Past tense verb! I go to the store. I got some candy there.

NO! I went to the store. I got some candy there. Chapter 6 Review Punctuation! Comma- connecting two independent clauses with conjunction OR connecting two independent clauses with conjunction OR listing OR dates OR used to separate quotes Semicolon- beginning a list with commas OR connecting two INDEPENDENT CLAUSES Apostrophe- can show ownership in singular or plural nouns depending on

placement OR can connect and shorten two words (contraction) Quotes- around what is said in a sentence OR titles of shorter works Chapter 6 Review Plurals and apostrophes Noun with regular plurality rules (add s) Nurse-1 nurse Nurses-2+ nurses Nurses- 1 nurse owns something (nurses outfit, nurses shift) Nurses- 2+ nurses own something (nurses outfits, nurses shifts)

Can tell because of nouns following nurse if apostrophe is correct or it is a mistake in grammar If noun shows plurality in another way: Man- 1 man Men- 2+ men Mans- 1 man owns something Mens- 2+ men own something Chapter 6 Review Pronouns and Ownership

NEVER apostrophes in pronoun ownership, just special pronouns His, her, its, my, their Its= it is theyre= they are NOT POSSESSION OR PLURAL! Chapter 7 Review Clauses-two types Dependent- needs connection to an independent clause through comma and connecting word (conjunction)

And, or, although, but, if Independent- does not need to be connected to anything; can stand on its own CAN be connected to another independent clause (2 ways) Comma+conjunction Semicolon ; Be careful of Run-ons, comma splices, sentence fragments Chapter 7 Review Adjectives-describe NOUNS

Adverbs-describe VERBS Parallel structure-verbs must match tense I went to the store and bought candy, had fun with my friends, and run into my old teacher. What is wrong there? RUN! Should be ____________ to match the past-tense verbs in the list. Chapter 8 Review Remember organization patterns from reading unit to help you

when ordering sentences and paragraphs Practice Test Assigned on Essential Ed Grading Essays Practice Grading

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